# Quiz 3: Graphical Descriptive Techniques II

Statistics

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Q 4Q 4

The number of class intervals in a histogram depends on the number of observations in the data set.

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Q 5Q 5

A relative frequency distribution describes the proportion of data values that fall within each category.

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Q 6Q 6

A stem-and-leaf display reveals more information about the original data than does a histogram.

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True False

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Q 8Q 8

The advantage of a stem-and-leaf display over a histogram is that we can see the actual observations.

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True False

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Q 10Q 10

A cumulative relative frequency distribution lists the number of observations that lie below each of the class limits.

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Q 15Q 15

When a distribution has more values to the left and tails off to the right, it is skewed negatively.

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True False

Q 16Q 16

A histogram is said to be symmetric if, when we draw a vertical line down the center of the histogram the two sides are nearly identical.

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Q 18Q 18

When a distribution has more values to the right and tails to the left, we say it is skewed negatively.

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True False

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Q 21Q 21

The original observations cannot be determined once they are grouped into a frequency distribution.

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True False

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Q 23Q 23

Experience shows that few students hand in their statistics exams early; most prefer to hand them in near the end of the test period.This means the time taken by students to write exams is positively skewed.

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True False

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Q 25Q 25

Which of the following represents a graphical presentation of interval data?
A) A bar chart.
B) A histogram.
C) A pie chart.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

Which of the following statements about histograms is true?
A) A histogram is a summary of interval data.
B) A histogram is made of a series of intervals, called classes.
C) The classes in a histogram cover the complete range of observations.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

Which of the following statements about histograms is false?
A) The intervals of a histogram do not overlap.
B) Every observation is assigned to one and only one class in a histogram.
C) The intervals of a histogram are equally wide.
D) None of these choices.

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Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

Which of the following describes the shape of the histogram below?
A) Positively skewed
B) Negatively skewed
C) Symmetric
D) None of these choices

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Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

The relative frequency of a class in a histogram is computed by
A) dividing the frequency of the class by the number of classes.
B) dividing the frequency of the class by the class width.
C) dividing the frequency of the class by the total of all frequencies.
D) None of these choices.

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Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

Compare the two histograms below.Which statement is true?
A) The center of histogram A is lower than the center of histogram B.
B) The center of histogram A is higher than the center of histogram B.
C) The center of histogram A is the same as the center of histogram B.
D) You cannot compare the centers of these two histograms without the original data.

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Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

Compare the two histograms below.Which statement is true?
A) The spread of histogram A is smaller than the spread of histogram B.
B) The spread of histogram A is larger than the spread of histogram B.
C) The spread of histogram A is the same as the spread of histogram B.
D) You cannot compare the spreads of these two histograms without the original data.

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Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

Compare the two histograms below.Which statement is true?
A) The shape of histogram A is the same as the shape of histogram B.
B) The shape of histogram A is positively skewed compared to histogram B.
C) The shape of histogram A is negatively skewed compared to histogram B.
D) You cannot compare the shapes of these two histograms without the original data.

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Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

A modal class in a histogram is the class that includes
A) the largest number of observations.
B) the smallest number of observations.
C) the largest observation in the data set.
D) the smallest observation in the data set.

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Q 34Q 34

The sum of the relative frequencies for all classes in a histogram always equals
A) the number of classes.
B) the class width.
C) the total of all the frequencies.
D) one.

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Q 35Q 35

Which of the following statements about shapes of histograms is true?
A) A histogram is said to be symmetric if, when we draw a vertical line down the center of the histogram, the two sides are identical in shape and size.
B) A negatively skewed histogram is one with a long tail extending to the left.
C) A positively skewed histogram is one with a long tail extending to the right.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

Compare the spread of the two histograms below.Which of the following is true?
A) Data Set A has a larger spread than Data Set B.
B) Data Set A has a smaller spread than Data Set B.
C) Data Set A has the same spread as Data Set B.
D) You cannot compare the spreads of these histograms without the original data.

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Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

Which of the following is true about a stem-and-leaf display?
A) You can recreate the original data set from it.
B) Its shape resembles a histogram turned on its side.
C) It provides an organized way to depict interval data.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

What does the length of each line of a stem-and-leaf display represent?
A) The percentage of observations in the interval represented by that stem.
B) The number of observations in the interval represented by that stem.
C) The total frequency of observations within or below that stem.
D) The number of digits to the left of the decimal point.

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Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

What values are displayed on a cumulative relative frequency distribution?
A) The number of observations that fall into each class interval.
B) The proportion of observations that fall into each class interval.
C) The number of observations that fall below each class interval.
D) The proportion of observations that fall below each class interval.

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Multiple Choice

Q 40Q 40

Which of the following describes an ogive?
A) A graphical representation of frequencies.
B) A graphical representation of relative frequencies.
C) A graphical representation of cumulative frequencies.
D) A graphical representation of cumulative relative frequencies.

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Multiple Choice

Q 41Q 41

We create a frequency distribution for interval data by counting the number of observations that fall into each of a series of intervals, called ____________________.

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Q 42Q 42

The more observations we have, the ____________________ the number of class intervals we need to use to draw a useful histogram.

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Q 43Q 43

A graph of the frequency distribution for interval data is called a(n) ____________________.

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Q 44Q 44

We determine the approximate width of the classes by subtracting the smallest observation from the largest and dividing the answer by the number of ____________________.

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Q 45Q 45

A histogram is said to be ____________________ if, when we draw a vertical line down the center of the histogram, the two sides are identical in shape and size.

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Q 46Q 46

A(n) ____________________ histogram is one with a long tail extending to either the right or the left.

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Q 48Q 48

It is typical that when taking an exam, few students hand in their exams early; most prefer to reread their papers and hand them in near the end of the scheduled exam period.Under this scenario, a histogram of exam taking times is ____________________ skewed.

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Q 49Q 49

In a histogram a(n) ____________________ class is the one with the largest number of observations.

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Q 51Q 51

The length of each line in a step-and-leaf display represents the ____________________ of that class interval defined by the stems.

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Q 52Q 52

A(n) ____________________ is a graphical representation of the cumulative relative frequencies.

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Q 54Q 54

A(n) ____________________ display shows the actual observations as well as the number of observations in each class.

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Q 55Q 55

A(n) ____________________ is a table that sorts data into class intervals (categories) and gives the number of observations in each interval (category).

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Q 57Q 57

Thirty voters participating in a recent election exit poll in Alabama were asked to state their political party affiliation.Coding the data 1 for Republican, 2 for Democrat, and 3 for Independent, the data collected were as follows: 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 3, 3, 2, 1, 3, 3, 2, 1, 1, 3, 2, 3, 1, 3, 2, 3, 2, 1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 2, 1, and 3.Develop a frequency distribution and a relative frequency distribution for this data.What does the data suggest about the strength of the political parties in Alabama?

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Q 58Q 58

Teachers Ages
The ages (in years) of a sample of 25 teachers are as follows:
-{Teachers Ages Narrative} Draw a frequency histogram of this data which contains four classes.What is the shape of the histogram?

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Q 59Q 59

Teachers Ages
The ages (in years) of a sample of 25 teachers are as follows:
-{Teachers Ages Narrative} Draw a frequency histogram of this data which contains six classes.What is the shape of the histogram?

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Q 60Q 60

Teachers Ages
The ages (in years) of a sample of 25 teachers are as follows:
-{Teachers Ages Narrative} Draw a stem-and-leaf display of this data.What is the minimum and maximum age of the teachers in this data set?

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Q 61Q 61

Teachers Ages
The ages (in years) of a sample of 25 teachers are as follows:
-{Teachers Ages Narrative} Construct an ogive for this data.Estimate the proportion of salespersons that are: 1) under 30 years of age; 2) 40 years of age or over; and 3) between 40 and 50 years of age.

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Q 62Q 62

Test scores
The scores on a calculus test for a random sample of 40 students are as follows:
-{Test Grades Narrative} Construct a stem-and-leaf display for this data set.Describe the shape of the data.

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Q 63Q 63

Test scores
The scores on a calculus test for a random sample of 40 students are as follows:
-{Test Grades Narrative} Construct frequency and relative frequency distributions for this data set using seven class intervals.Describe the shape of the data set.

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Q 64Q 64

Test scores
The scores on a calculus test for a random sample of 40 students are as follows:
-{Test Grade Narrative} Construct a relative frequency histogram for this data set and discuss its shape.

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Q 65Q 65

Test scores
The scores on a calculus test for a random sample of 40 students are as follows:
-{Test Grades Narrative} Describe the distribution of exam scores.

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Q 66Q 66

Test scores
The scores on a calculus test for a random sample of 40 students are as follows:
-{Test Grades Narrative} Construct a cumulative frequency and a cumulative relative frequency distribution for this data.What proportion of the exam scores are less than 60? What proportion of the exam scores are 70 or more?

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Q 67Q 67

Test scores
The scores on a calculus test for a random sample of 40 students are as follows:
-{Test Grades Narrative) Construct an ogive for this data set.Use the ogive to estimate the proportion of exam scores that are between 80 and 90.

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Q 68Q 68

Fifty two truck buyers were asked to indicate the car dealer they believed offered the best overall service.The four choices were A, B, C, and D as shown below:
Construct a table showing the frequencies and relative frequencies for this data set.What proportion of car buyers rated dealer D as the best?

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Q 69Q 69

A supermarket's monthly sales (in thousands of dollars) for the last year were as follows:
Construct a relative frequency bar chart for this data set.How many observations are there in this data set?

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Q 70Q 70

Consider the following cumulative frequency distribution.
Fill in the frequencies for each class in the above table.

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Q 71Q 71

The weights of a sample of 25 workers are given (in pounds): 164, 148, 137, 157, 173, 156, 177, 172, 169, 165, 145, 168, 163, 162, 174, 152, 156, 168, 154, 151, 174, 146, 134, 140, and 171.Construct an ogive for the data.What proportion of the worker's weights are between 160 and 180 pounds; below 150 pounds; and at or above 140 pounds, respectively?

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Q 72Q 72

Insurance Company
A representative from a local insurance agency selected a random sample of insured homeowners and recorded the number of claims made in the last three years, with the following results:
-{Insurance Company Narrative} How many homeowners are represented in the sample?

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Q 73Q 73

Insurance Company
A representative from a local insurance agency selected a random sample of insured homeowners and recorded the number of claims made in the last three years, with the following results:
-{Insurance Company Narrative} How many total claims are represented in the sample?

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Q 74Q 74

Insurance Company
A representative from a local insurance agency selected a random sample of insured homeowners and recorded the number of claims made in the last three years, with the following results:
-{Insurance Company Narrative} What proportion of homeowners had no claims in the last three years?

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Q 75Q 75

Insurance Company
A representative from a local insurance agency selected a random sample of insured homeowners and recorded the number of claims made in the last three years, with the following results:
-{Insurance Company Narrative} What number of claims was made by the highest proportion of homeowners?

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Q 76Q 76

Electronics Company
At a meeting of regional offices managers of a national electronics company, a survey was taken to determine the number of employees the regional managers supervise in the operation of their departments.The results of the survey are shown below.
-{Electronics Company Narrative} How many regional offices are represented in the survey results?

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Q 77Q 77

Electronics Company
At a meeting of regional offices managers of a national electronics company, a survey was taken to determine the number of employees the regional managers supervise in the operation of their departments.The results of the survey are shown below.
-{Electronics Company Narrative} Across all of the regional offices, how many total employees were supervised by those surveyed?

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Q 78Q 78

Electronics Company
At a meeting of regional offices managers of a national electronics company, a survey was taken to determine the number of employees the regional managers supervise in the operation of their departments.The results of the survey are shown below.
-{Electronics Company Narrative} What proportion of managers supervise 3 employees?

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Q 79Q 79

Electronics Company
At a meeting of regional offices managers of a national electronics company, a survey was taken to determine the number of employees the regional managers supervise in the operation of their departments.The results of the survey are shown below.
-{Electronics Company Narrative} What is the cumulative relative frequency corresponding to 4 employees?

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Q 80Q 80

Internet Classes
A survey of 25 students was conducted to determine how they rate the quality of Internet classes.Students were asked to rate the overall quality from 0 (no quality at all) to 100 (extremely good quality).The stem-and-leaf display of the data is shown below.
-{Internet Classes Narrative} What percentage of the students rated the overall quality of Internet classes as being 70 or above?

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Q 81Q 81

Internet Classes
A survey of 25 students was conducted to determine how they rate the quality of Internet classes.Students were asked to rate the overall quality from 0 (no quality at all) to 100 (extremely good quality).The stem-and-leaf display of the data is shown below.
-{Internet Classes Narrative} What percentage of the students rated the overall quality of Internet classes as being 60 or below?

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Q 82Q 82

Internet Classes
A survey of 25 students was conducted to determine how they rate the quality of Internet classes.Students were asked to rate the overall quality from 0 (no quality at all) to 100 (extremely good quality).The stem-and-leaf display of the data is shown below.
-{Internet Classes Narrative} What percentage of the students rated the overall quality of on-line classes as being between 50 and 75, inclusive?

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Q 83Q 83

Internet Classes
A survey of 25 students was conducted to determine how they rate the quality of Internet classes.Students were asked to rate the overall quality from 0 (no quality at all) to 100 (extremely good quality).The stem-and-leaf display of the data is shown below.
-{Internet Classes Narrative} What percentage of the students rated the overall quality of on-line classes as being below 40?

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Q 84Q 84

A line chart is created by plotting the values of the variable on the vertical axis and the time periods on the horizontal axis.

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True False

Q 85Q 85

Time series data are often graphically depicted on a line chart, which is a plot of the variable of interest over time.

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 88Q 88

A department store's monthly sales (in thousands of dollars) for the last year were as follows.A histogram should be used to present these data.

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Q 89Q 89

The line chart below shows tomato prices each month from January (month 1) to December last year ($ per pound).By looking at this chart you can see the lowest tomato prices occurred in July.

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True False

Q 90Q 90

The line chart below shows cucumber prices fluctuated from $2.00 per pound to over $4.50 per pound during the year.

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True False

Q 91Q 91

What type of graph depicts the data below?
A) A line chart
B) A histogram
C) A dot plot
D) A bar chart

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Q 92Q 92

Observations that are measured at successive points in time is what type of data?
A) Time-series data
B) Cross-sectional data
C) Successive data
D) None of these choices.

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Q 93Q 93

Observations that are measured at the same time represent what type of data?
A) Time-series data
B) Cross-sectional data
C) Synchronous data
D) None of these choices.

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Q 94Q 94

Which of the following represents time-series data?
A) The length of time each of the top 100 stocks have been available on the NYSE.
B) The most popular time of year that people purchase the top 100 stocks on the NYSE.
C) The value of the #1 stock on the NYSE each month over a one-year period.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 95Q 95

Time-series data are often graphically depicted how?
A) Bar chart
B) Histogram
C) Line chart
D) All of these choices are true.

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Q 96Q 96

Which of the following statements describes a line chart?
A) A line chart is a graph of time-series data.
B) A line chart is a plot of a variable over time.
C) The horizontal axis of a line chart contains time periods.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 97Q 97

What kind(s) of data can be depicted by a line chart?
A) Frequencies of an interval over time.
B) Frequencies of a nominal variable over time.
C) Relative frequencies of a nominal variable over time.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 98Q 98

Which of the following statements describe(s) the line chart below?
A) November experienced the lowest sales throughout the year.
B) August experienced the highest sales throughout the year.
C) Sales did not fluctuate more than 30 units on either side of 90.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Q 99Q 99

The line chart below shows potato prices per pound for each month from January (month 1) to December last year.By looking at this chart you can see the lowest potato prices occurred in ____________________.

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Q 101Q 101

Observations that are taken during successive points in time are called ____________________ data.

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Q 102Q 102

Time series data are often graphically depicted on a(n) ____________________, which is a plot of the variable of interest over time.

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Q 103Q 103

A(n) ____________________ is created by plotting the value of the variable on the vertical axis and the time periods on the horizontal axis.

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Q 104Q 104

A line chart is created by plotting the value of the variable on the ____________________ axis and the time periods on the ____________________ axis.

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Q 107Q 107

Beef prices throughout the year (month 1 = January) are shown in the line chart below (per pound).Describe beef prices for this given year using this line chart.

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Q 108Q 108

The graphical technique used to describe the relationship between two interval variables is the scatter diagram.

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True False

Q 109Q 109

The two most important characteristics revealed by the scatter diagram are the strength and direction of the linear relationship.

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True False

Q 110Q 110

Data for calories and salt content (milligrams of sodium) in 17 brands of meat hot dogs are shown in the scatter diagram below.According to this diagram, it appears that hot dogs that are high in sodium are generally low in calories, and hot dogs with low sodium are generally high in calories.

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True False

Q 111Q 111

If we draw a straight line through the points in a scatter diagram and most of the points fall close to the line, there must be a positive relationship between the two variables.

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True False

Q 112Q 112

The two most important characteristics to examine in a scatter diagram are the number of possible categories for X and Y and the number of observations in each category.

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True False

Q 113Q 113

When two variables are linearly related, and tend to move in opposite directions, we describe the nature of their association as a negative linear relationship.

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True False

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True False

Q 115Q 115

If two variables have a strong linear relationship, that means one variable is causing the other variable to go up or down.

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True False

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True False

Q 117Q 117

The first scatter diagram below shows a stronger linear relationship than the second scatter diagram.(Assume the scales on both scatter diagrams are the same.)

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True False

Q 118Q 118

A professor examines the relationship between minutes studying and exam score (out of 200 points) for a random sample of his students.The scatter diagram is shown below.It appears that study time has somewhat of a positive linear relationship with exam score.

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True False

Q 119Q 119

The relationship between two interval variables is graphically displayed by a
A) scatter diagram
B) histogram
C) bar chart
D) pie chart

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Q 120Q 120

In order to draw a scatter diagram, we need interval data for
A) one variable
B) two variables
C) three variables
D) four variables

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Q 121Q 121

Which of the following statements is false?
A) You can examine the relationship between two nominal variables using a cross-classification table.
B) You can only apply statistical techniques to one variable at a time.
C) You can examine the relationship between two interval variables using a scatter diagram.
D) None of these choices.

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Q 122Q 122

How do you determine whether two interval variables have a positive linear relationship?
A) Most of the points fall close to a straight line with positive slope.
B) As the X variable increases, the Y variable increases in a linear way.
C) The scatter diagram shows a linear pattern that is going uphill.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Q 123Q 123

If the data in a scatter diagram is scattered completely at random, what do you conclude?
A) There is no linear relationship between X and Y.
B) There is a strong linear relationship between X and Y.
C) There is a strong linear relationship between X and Y that is described by a horizontal (flat) line.
D) None of these choices.

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Q 124Q 124

Which of the following is the method statisticians use to draw the best fitting straight line through the data on a scatter diagram?
A) The fit best method.
B) The least squares method.
C) The point-intercept method.
D) None of these choices.

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Q 125Q 125

Which of the following describes a positive linear relationship between X and Y?
A) As the X values increase, the Y values increase in a linear manner.
B) As the X values decrease, the Y values decrease in a linear manner.
C) The X and Y values move uphill together in a linear manner.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Q 126Q 126

When two variables tend to move in opposite directions, yet still form a linear pattern, how do you describe their relationship?
A) A positive linear relationship.
B) A negative linear relationship.
C) A proportional inverse relationship.
D) None of these choices.

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Q 127Q 127

In applications involving two variables, X and Y, where one variable depends to some degree on the other, we call Y the ____________________ variable.

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Q 128Q 128

In applications involving two variables, X and Y, where one variable depends to some degree on the other, we call X the ____________________ variable.

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Q 129Q 129

A(n) ____________________ is a graphical display consisting of a set of points, each point representing one variable measured along the horizontal axis, and another variable measured along the vertical axis.

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Q 130Q 130

If when one variable increases the other one also increases, we say that there is a(n) ____________________ relationship between these two variables.

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Q 131Q 131

When one variable increases and the other decreases, we say that there is a(n) ____________________ relationship between these two variables.

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Q 132Q 132

An individual's income depends somewhat on their number of years of education.Accordingly, we identify income as the ____________________ variable, and years of education as the ____________________ variable.

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Q 133Q 133

One of the variables used to help predict unemployment rates is the rate of inflation.Accordingly, we identify rate of inflation as the ____________________ variable, and unemployment rate as the ____________________ variable.

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Q 134Q 134

The two most important characteristics to look for in a scatter diagram are the ____________________ and ____________________ of the linear relationship.

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Q 135Q 135

An economics professor wants to study the relationship between income and education.A sample of 10 individuals is selected at random, and their income (in thousands of dollars) and education (in years) are shown below:
a.
Draw a scatter diagram for these data with the income on the vertical axis.
b.
Describe the relationship between income and education.

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Q 136Q 136

The number of houses sold in Miami Springs and the average monthly mortgage rates for 18 months randomly selected between January 2011 and April 2013 are shown in the following table.
a.
Draw a scatter diagram with the number of houses sold on the vertical axis.
b.
Describe the relationship between mortgage rate and number of houses sold.

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Q 137Q 137

Briefly explain the difference between correlation and causation in terms of a relationship between X and Y.

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Q 138Q 138

It is speculated that the number of police officers has a negative linear relationship with number of crimes.Explain why this might be so.

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Q 140Q 140

Can a scatter diagram be used to explore the relationship between two nominal variables? Explain why or why not.

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Q 141Q 141

Graphical techniques should not be used to present data if accurate tabular forms for the same data are available.

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True False

Q 142Q 142

Graphical excellence gives the greatest number of ideas in the shortest time with the least ink in the smallest space.

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True False

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True False

Q 144Q 144

The techniques of shrinking the horizontal axis or stretching the vertical axis have the effect of making the slope of the graph visually (but not numerically) steeper.

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True False

Q 145Q 145

Graphical excellence is a term usually applied to techniques that are informative and concise and that impart information clearly to their viewers.

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True False

Q 146Q 146

A popular method of creating distorted impressions with bar charts is to construct the bars so that their widths are proportional to their heights.

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True False

Q 147Q 147

If the form of the graph replaces the substance of the data, the graph is performing to function and graphical excellence is achieved.

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True False

Q 148Q 148

A pie chart uses relative frequencies to summarize the data so including the sample size is not important.

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True False

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True False

Q 150Q 150

A line chart showing the number of crimes in Las Vegas from 2000 to 2005 may exhibit a totally different trend than a line chart showing the crime rate in Las Vegas from 2000 to 2005.(Crime rate is defined as number of crimes per 100,000 people.)

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True False

Q 151Q 151

A pie chart showing 80% yes and 20% no would look the same whether it was based on 10,000 observations or 10 observations.This is one way that pie charts can be deceptive.

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True False

Q 152Q 152

A bar chart can be made to look deceptive if the Y-axis starts at a number other than zero.

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True False

Q 153Q 153

The following graph shows pepper prices throughout a 12-month period. Suppose you made a new graph of the same data, where the maximum value on the Y-axis was changed from 5.0 to 10.0.(Assume everything else stays the same.) Your new graph would appear to have ____ variability in pepper prices compared to the original graph shown above.
A) more
B) less
C) the same
D) unknown

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Multiple Choice

Q 154Q 154

The effect of making the slope of a line chart appear steeper can be created by:
A) Stretching the vertical axis.
B) Shrinking the horizontal axis.
C) Stretching the horizontal axis.
D) Both a and b

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Q 155Q 155

Which of the following is a characteristic of graphical excellence?
A) Data sets are summarized in tables wherever possible.
B) The graph includes no more than one variable, to stress clarity.
C) The substance of the data, and not the form of the graph, is stressed.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Q 156Q 156

Possible methods of graphical deception include:
A) A graph without a scale on one axis.
B) A graph's caption that influences the impression of the viewer.
C) A graph where absolute changes, rather than percentage changes, are reported.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 157Q 157

Possible methods of creating distorted impressions with bar charts include:
A) Stretching the vertical axis.
B) Shrinking the horizontal axis.
C) Constructing the bars so that their widths are proportional to their heights.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 158Q 158

Which of the following statements is true?
A) Graphical techniques should only be used where there is a small amount of data.
B) Large data sets are best presented in tabular form.
C) Graphical techniques create a visual impression, which is easy to distort.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 159Q 159

Which of the following characteristics apply to achieve graphical excellence?
A) The graph encourages the viewer to compare two or more variables.
B) The display induces the viewer to address the substance of the data and not the form of the graph.
C) There is no distortion of what the data reveal.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 160Q 160

Which of the following statements illustrates graphical deception?
A) Absolute changes, rather than percentage changes are reported.
B) To reduce clutter, the scales of the axes are not shown.
C) The Y-axis is stretched or shrunk to show the data in their best possible light.
D) All of these choices are true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 161Q 161

You are less likely to be misled by a graph if you:
A) Concentrate on the numbers rather than the form of the graph.
B) Pay more attention to the graph's caption than to the graph itself.
C) Ignore the scales used on the axes.
D) None of these choices.

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Multiple Choice

Q 162Q 162

Is it fair to depict Texas as most tornado prone area of the U.S.by showing it has the highest number of tornados of all states in the U.S.?
A) Yes, because number of tornadoes is the appropriate measure in this situation.
B) Yes, because Texas is one of the largest states.
C) No, because Texas is larger than almost every other state.Number of square miles should also be taken into account.
D) No, because Texas has a very high population, and you need to report tornados per capita.

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Multiple Choice

Q 163Q 163

A(n) ____________________ is best defined as a set of symbols (such as people or animals) used to depict data.It often distorts the actual sizes of the items being portrayed.

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Essay

Q 164Q 164

Differences in the frequencies of a histogram appear to be less dramatic if you ____________________ the vertical axis.

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Essay

Q 165Q 165

Differences in the frequencies of a histogram appear to be more dramatic if you ____________________ the vertical axis.

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Q 166Q 166

The number of crimes per capita is known as the crime ____________________.It is a fairer way to represent and compare crimes from year to year or place to place.

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Q 167Q 167

Pie charts only show ____________________, not ____________________.This means you don't know what the sample size is unless it is stated on the pie chart.

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Q 168Q 168

Slopes and trends in a line chart appear to be less steep if you ____________________ the horizontal (time) axis.

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Q 169Q 169

Slopes and trends in a line chart appear to be steeper if you ____________________ the horizontal (time) axis.

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Essay

Q 171Q 171

In its 2000 report, a company presented the following data regarding its sales (in millions of dollars), and net income (in millions of dollars).
The bar chart below was used to present these data. Assume that you are an unscrupulous statistician and want to make the data appear more positive than they really are.Redraw the graph by being selective about which years to include, getting the desired effect.

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Essay

Q 172Q 172

Admission to ER
The following bar chart shows the type of aspirin (if any) given to 100 cardiac patients within 15 minutes of their admission to the emergency room.
-{Admission to ER Narrative} Notice that the Y-axis of the bar chart does not start at a frequency of zero.Create a new bar chart of the displayed data that accurately displays the frequency for each aspirin type.

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Essay

Q 173Q 173

Admission to ER
The following bar chart shows the type of aspirin (if any) given to 100 cardiac patients within 15 minutes of their admission to the emergency room.
-{Admission to ER Narrative} In what way does the original bar chart distort the data as compared to a bar chart that starts at zero on the Y-axis (frequency axis)?

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Essay

Q 174Q 174

Credit Hours
The College of Business at The State University of California produced 3,400 credit hours during Spring Semester, 2011he number and percentage of credit hours produced by each of the four departments in the College of Business is shown below.
The following three-dimensional pie chart was constructed from the table above.
-{Credit Hours Narrative} Construct a two-dimensional pie chart showing the percentages of credit hours produced by the four departments.

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Essay

Q 175Q 175

Credit Hours
The College of Business at The State University of California produced 3,400 credit hours during Spring Semester, 2011he number and percentage of credit hours produced by each of the four departments in the College of Business is shown below.
The following three-dimensional pie chart was constructed from the table above.
-{Credit Hours Narrative} In what way does the original three-dimensional pie chart distort the data, compared to a two-dimensional pie chart?

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Essay

Q 177Q 177

Samantha recorded her amount of exercise time (in minutes) for 100 days.Both of the line charts below were created based on her same data set.Which line chart makes her exercise times look more variable and why?

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Essay

Q 178Q 178

Home Care
Data are collected on the number of house calls (x) made in a given week by each of 60 nurses in a certain hospital.The same data set is displayed in each of the three histograms below.
-{Home Care Narrative} How many nurses are there in this hospital?

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Essay

Q 179Q 179

Home Care
Data are collected on the number of house calls (x) made in a given week by each of 60 nurses in a certain hospital.The same data set is displayed in each of the three histograms below.
-{Home Care Narrative} Which histogram makes the differences in the house calls appear to be the most dramatic?

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Essay

Q 180Q 180

Home Care
Data are collected on the number of house calls (x) made in a given week by each of 60 nurses in a certain hospital.The same data set is displayed in each of the three histograms below.
-{Home Care Narrative} Which histogram makes the differences in the house calls appear to be the least dramatic?

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Essay

Q 181Q 181

Home Care
Data are collected on the number of house calls (x) made in a given week by each of 60 nurses in a certain hospital.The same data set is displayed in each of the three histograms below.
-{Home Care Narrative}Which graph do you think is the most appropriate display? Justify your answer.

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Q 182Q 182

Below are two line charts where the percentage return for a stock is shown over time.The two graphs are made from the same data set. Explain why these two line charts look different.

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Q 183Q 183

An online dating service has a quick poll on its website showing the following results.Critique the graph portion of the table.How can it be improved?

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