Which of the following are likely to cause a decrease in a patient's tidal volume?
1) Pulmonary edema
2) Metabolic acidosis
3) Acute respiratory distress syndrome
4) The postoperative period after coronary artery bypass surgery
Ventilatory measurements routinely monitored at the bedside include which of the following?
1) Airway pressures
2) Lung volumes and flows
3) Fractional gas concentrations
4) Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production
It is important to monitor lung volumes in ICU patients because changes in lung volumes reflect which of the following changes?
1) Changes in gas exchange in the lung.
2) Changes in the patient's clinical status.
3) A response to therapy and any problems that may arise.
4) They influence the selection of antibiotic therapy in the ICU.
In a sedated, mechanically ventilated patient, inspiratory tidal volumes are consistently larger than expiratory tidal volumes. If it is assumed that there is no leak in the circuit, which of the following provides the best explanation for this discrepancy?
In healthy, spontaneously breathing patients, an occasional increase in tidal volume to three or four times the normal level, which normally occurs about six to ten times each hour, is the definition of a:
Which of the following changes can decrease "breath stacking" in a mechanically ventilated patient?
1) A decreased ventilator rate
2) An increased inspiratory flow
3) A decreased expiratory time
4) A decreased mechanical tidal volume
In mechanically ventilated patients, the addition of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to normal tidal volumes is associated with which of the following effects?
1) Decrease in intrapulmonary shunting
2) Increase in functional residual capacity
3) Increase in partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)
4) Increase in residual volume