# Quiz 1: Introduction to Statistics and Research

Psychology

Q 1Q 1

Which of the following is not a purpose of statistical procedures?
A)Organizing data
B)Summarizing data
C)Hypothesizing data
D)Communicating data

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Multiple Choice

C

Q 2Q 2

In statistics a population is
A)the entire group to which a law of nature applies.
B)a subset of a group to which a law of nature applies.
C)all the people in the world.
D)an infinite number that cannot be counted.

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Multiple Choice

A

Q 3Q 3

In statistics, a sample is
A)the entire group to which a law is applied.
B)a subset of a group to which a law is applied.
C)all of the subjects in which we are interested.
D)at least half of the subjects in the population.

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Multiple Choice

B

Q 4Q 4

The individuals measured in a sample are called the
A)scores.
B)population.
C)observations.
D)participants.

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

A representative sample is one
A)created by selecting only those participants determined to be representative of the larger population.
B)having characteristics accurately reflecting the characteristics of the population.
C)based on the luck of the draw.
D)known to be a biased sample.

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

A statistics class has 60% females and 40% males.A researcher selects a sample having 80% males and 20% females.Why should the researcher be cautious of making inferences about the entire class based on the sample?
A)Because the sample appears to be representative of the population.
B)Because the sample appears to be unrepresentative of the population.
C)Because the opinions of the females in the sample will not be the same as those of the females in the population.
D)Because the sample was too small.

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

In research, the aspects of the situation or behavior we measure are called
A)scores.
B)variables.
C)relationships.
D)samples and populations.

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

Which of the following is a variable?
A)The number of students in your statistics class today
B)The date and month of the 4th of July
C)The height of the players on a basketball team
D)Your latest test score

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Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

When a change in the scores of one variable is accompanied by a consistent change in the scores of another variable, we have what is known as a
A)cause-and-effect explanation.
B)relationship.
C)variable.
D)set of scores.

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Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

Of the following data sets, which shows a relationship?
A)Sample A
B)?Sample B
C)?Sample C
D)?Sample D

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

A relationship is not present when
A)each unique Y score is paired with one and only one X score.
B)as the Y scores increase, the X scores also increase.
C)as the Y scores decrease, the X scores increase.
D)virtually the same set of Y scores is paired with every X score.

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

If I want to summarize the characteristics of my statistics class to my friend, I should use
A)an experimental design.
B)a correlational design.
C)inferential statistics.
D)descriptive statistics.

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

In order to make statements about the population from information obtained from a sample, we must use
A)an experimental design.
B)a correlational design.
C)inferential statistics.
D)descriptive statistics.

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

The variable systematically changed or manipulated by a researcher in an experiment is called the
A)independent variable.
B)correlational variable.
C)dependent variable.
D)extraneous variable.

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

Suppose you are interested in how participants perform under different temperature conditions.You select 30 participants and assign them to work in one of three rooms.The rooms differ only with respect to temperature.You instruct all participants to solve the same jigsaw puzzle, and then you measure how long it takes each one to finish. This research is an example of
A)a correlational study.
B)population measurement.
C)an experimental study.
D)the use of descriptive statistics.

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

A specific amount or category of the independent variable creating the specific situation under which the participants' scores on some other variable are measured is called a/an
A)independent variable.
B)dependent variable.
C)statistic.
D)condition.

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

The variable measured as an experiment is being carried out is called the
A)independent variable.
B)correlational variable.
C)dependent variable.
D)extraneous variable.

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

A researcher investigates whether there is a relationship between hours of sleep and memory for photographs by having 40 people sleep in the laboratory and waking 20 of the participants after 4 hours of sleep and the others after 8 hours of sleep.After they are awakened, each participant is asked to study 21 photographs and then recall as many details from the photographs as possible.In this study, what is 8 hours of sleep?
A)The independent variable
B)The dependent variable
C)The sample
D)A condition of the independent variable

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

Suppose you are interested in how participants perform under different temperature conditions.You select 30 participants and assign them to work in one of three rooms.The rooms differ only with respect to temperature.You instruct all participants to solve the same jigsaw puzzle, and then you measure how long it takes each one to finish.In this research, the experimenter is investigating whether
A)participants can solve a jigsaw puzzle in different rooms.
B)participants can solve a jigsaw puzzle under different temperature conditions.
C)the time required to solve a jigsaw puzzle depends on temperature.
D)temperature depends on the time required to solve a jigsaw puzzle.

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

Which of the following studies is best for showing the first variable produces a change in the second variable?
A)A researcher asks people who are entering the grocery store how hungry they are and then asks them how much they spent on food as they leave the store.
B)A researcher has participants sleep various amounts of hours and then observes how cranky they are.
C)A researcher asks participants how well they like to think and how many books they have read in the last 6 months.
D)A researcher asks participants how many hours per week they listened to Beethoven while growing up and then gives them a math ability test.

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

In a/an , the experimenter measures scores on two variables.In a/an , the experimenter manipulates or changes one variable and measures scores on the other.
A)correlational study; research design
B)research design; experiment
C)correlational study; experiment
D)experiment; correlational study

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Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

What do the design of the study and the scale of measurement have in common?
A)They are the aspects of a study to consider when deciding whether to conduct statistical analysis.
B)They are the aspects of a study known only to the researcher.
C)They are the aspects of a study to consider when deciding which descriptive or inferential statistics to use.
D)They are the aspects of a study known only after the study is completed.

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

Which of the following orders lists the scales of measurement from the scale providing the least specific information to the scale providing the most specific information?
A)ratio, interval, ordinal, nominal
B)ratio, interval, nominal, ordinal
C)ordinal, nominal, interval, ratio
D)nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

Gender is a clear example of a/an _____________________________ variable.
A)qualitative
B)quantitative
C)independent
D)dependent

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Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

Quantitative variables particularly measure
A)amounts.
B)mere presence.
C)associations.
D)significance.

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Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

Numbers obtained from a sample are known as
A)statistics.
B)parameters.
C)designs.
D)variables.

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Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

Symbols associated with different parameters come from the alphabet.
A)Greek
B)Hebrew
C)Chinese
D)German

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Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

A dependent variable is so named because it is dependent on
A)a participant's reaction to a condition.
B)the experimenter's behavior.
C)the participant's personality.
D)the level of measurement.

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Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

Correlational studies primarily are done to
A)determine whether there is a relationship between two variables.
B)establish cause and effect.
C)manipulate an independent variable.
D)determine appropriate parameters.

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Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

Variables that are more appropriate to categorize tend to fall on the scale.
A)nominal
B)ordinal
C)ratio
D)interval

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Multiple Choice

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Essay

Q 32Q 32

The income of lawyers their first year after law school would be an example of what type of variable?

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Essay

Q 33Q 33

A researcher investigated whether a person's mood influences another person's mood.The researcher divided the participants into three groups.Participants in the first group interacted with a happy person.Participants in the second group interacted with a sad person.Participants in the third group interacted with an emotionally neutral person.After the interaction, the researcher measured how happy the participants were.What are the conditions of the independent variable in this study?

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Essay

Q 34Q 34

Tiffany is conducting an experiment.She is interested in how fifth-grade teachers can motivate boys to read more.With the approval of her state's Board of Education, she is able to attend the annual conference of teachers and have the fifth-grade teachers complete her survey instrument.In this study, what would we consider the fifth-grade teachers at the conference?

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Essay

Q 35Q 35

"The average weight of students in the statistics class is 143 pounds" is an example of what type of statement?

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Essay

Q 36Q 36

"Based on a sample of 52 classrooms, our institution is using 12% less electricity than one year ago" is an example
of what type of statement?

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Essay

Q 37Q 37

What describes where a researcher actively changes or manipulates one variable, measures the scores on another variable, and keeps all other variables constant?

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Essay

Q 38Q 38

Suppose you are interested in how participants behave in different color conditions.You select 30 participants and assign them to one of three rooms.The rooms differ only with respect to the color of the walls.One room is white, one is pale blue, and a third is bright red.Each participant is served a meal of a hamburger and french fries, and you then measure how long it takes them to finish eating.What would be the independent variable in this study?

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Essay

Q 39Q 39

A researcher investigates whether there is a relationship between participating in school clubs and GPA by comparing GPAs from 40 students who are members of at least one school club with those from 40 students who are not members of a club.What is the independent variable in this study?

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Essay

Q 40Q 40

Mason is conducting a study on the effect of computer-based training on the math ability of seventh-graders.He randomly assigns one group of students to use a computer-based training method and another group of students to use workbooks.In this study, what would we view math ability as being?

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Essay

Q 41Q 41

Suppose you are interested in how participants behave in different color conditions.You select 30 participants and assign them to one of three rooms.The rooms differ only with respect to the color of the walls.One room is white, one is pale blue, and a third is bright red.Each participant is served a meal of a hamburger and french fries, and you then measure how long it takes them to finish eating.In this research, what is the dependent variable?

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Essay

Q 42Q 42

Suppose you are interested in how participants behave in different color conditions.You select 30 participants and assign them to one of three rooms.The rooms differ only with respect to the color of the walls.One room is white, one is pale blue, and a third is bright red.Each participant is served a meal of a hamburger and french fries, and you then measure how long it takes them to finish eating.What are the conditions of the independent variable?

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Essay

Q 43Q 43

Simone observed a group of adults at the local shopping mall.She recorded the length of time in minutes) they stayed and the number of purchases they made, and then analyzed her data to see if there was a relationship between these two variables.What type of study is this called?

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Essay

Q 44Q 44

"Watch for me on the football field.I'll be wearing number 32." What scale of measurement is described by this
statement?

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Essay

Q 45Q 45

What is the scale of measurement involved in the statement, "My daughter is four years old."?

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Essay

Q 46Q 46

Suppose a teacher is interested in surveying her students' attitudes about various social issues.On the day of the survey, everyone is present and takes it except for one student who is absent).Can we conclude that a population has been measured in this example? Why or why not?

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Q 48Q 48

Dr.Thompson has randomly assigned participants to walk for 30, 5, or 0 minutes and then measures their mood.How many conditions are present in this study?

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Q 49Q 49

Betty insists that ratio scales are the only measurement scales that contain the number 0.Is she correct?

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