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Medical Physiology

Medicine

Quiz 3 :

The Nervous System

Quiz 3 :

The Nervous System

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The fundamental benefit of applying positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to an 80-year-old patient with a large closing volume would be that PEEP:
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Multiple Choice
Answer:

Answer:

A

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A 44-year-old woman complains of increased 'hairiness' that has developed over her face and body over the past 2 years. Physical exam reveals increased hair growth over the upper lip, chin, chest, and abdomen, but no truncal obesity or purple striae. Laboratory values of which hormones would provide the most pertinent diagnostic information?
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Multiple Choice
Answer:

Answer:

E

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An 8-year-old girl developed 'rosy cheeks' while playing outside on a chilly day. What is thought to be the cause of this vasodilation?
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Multiple Choice
Answer:

Answer:

A

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A 15-year-old girl is brought to her doctor because of increased irritability, restlessness, weight loss and learning problems over the past 2 months. Physical examination reveals no abnormalities. Laboratory studies reveal increased triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Multiple Choice
Answer:
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A 60-year-old woman complains of persistent breathing difficulties. Her laboratory studies show: pH 7.36; [H+] 44 nmol/L; PaCO2 55 mmHg; [HCO3-] 30 mmol/L. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
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A 23-year-old girl complains of a 3-month history of malaise and generalized muscle cramps. Laboratory results reveal: serum sodium 144 mmol/L; serum potassium 2.0 mmol/L; serum bicarbonate 40 mmol/L; arterial pH 7.5. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this patient's hypokalemic alkalemia?
Multiple Choice
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While on a rotation in India, you encounter a 10-year-old patient who is suffering cholera and is severely dehydrated. You are asked to prepare an oral rehydration solution. What, in addition to water, would the most important components of the solution be?
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A 47-year-old male arrives in the emergency department with acute anterior chest pain, which radiates to the left arm and back and has lasted for 1 h. He is 80 in tall and weighs 190 lbs. His blood pressure is 115/70 mmHg, pulse 116/min, and respiratory rate 20/min. The lungs are clear and an electrocardiogram (ECG) shows no abnormalities. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Multiple Choice
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A 67-year-old man suffering from metastatic prostate cancer arrives at your emergency department 2 h after the sudden onset of anterior chest pain and shortness of breath. The pain is enhanced by deep breathing movements. He is hypotensive and exhibits a rapid pulse and respiration rate. His blood pressure is 100/56 mmHg, pulse 136/min and respiration rate 28/min. Although the lungs are clear, an electrocardiogram (ECG) shows a right axis deviation not observed before. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Multiple Choice
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A 6-week-old boy is brought to his pediatrician by his mother because of progressively worsening projectile vomiting over the past 2 weeks. Physical examination reveals a wasted, dehydrated infant who is avidly sucking on a nipple. Which of the following laboratory values is most consistent with this child's problem ? img
Multiple Choice
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A 58-year-old man complains of tinnitus that is loudest in his right ear and a decreased sense of taste in the anterior portion of his tongue. His symptoms have become progressively worse during the past 6 months. His physical examination is within normal limits. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Multiple Choice
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A 69-year-old man is diagnosed with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Which of the following hormones is primarily responsible for prostatic enlargement in BPH?
Multiple Choice
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An 18-year-old patient with trisomy 21 has an unrepaired complete atrioventricular (AV) canal defect and pulmonary hypertension. She is complaining of headache and dizziness. Which of the following tests would be most likely to reveal the etiology of these complaints?
Multiple Choice
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Upon awakening one morning, a 62-year-old man, is unable to use his right hand. In addition, he recently experienced conjugate deviation of the eyes to the left and paralysis of voluntary gaze to the right; 5 days later, however, his eye movements returned to normal. This patient probably has had a stroke involving the:
Multiple Choice
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A 56-year-old female complains of generalized weakness and a 20 lb weight loss over the past 6 months. Blood pressure is 136/80 mmHg and pulse is 88/min. Laboratory values reveal a hematocrit of 31% (normal 40-45%), hemoglobin level of 10 g/dL (normal 14 g/dL), and a blood smear shows hypochromic microcytic cells. A stool test for occult blood is positive. Which of the following would be the most likely cause of the findings?
Multiple Choice
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A previously healthy 2-year-old girl who developed a sudden onset of persistent coughing is brought to the pediatric clinic. She has no fever and now is coughing up bright red, frothy blood. What is the most likely cause of this child's problem?
Multiple Choice
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An 8-year-old girl has headache, vomiting, and hypertension. She appears adequately hydrated. Laboratory values are: serum sodium concentration 110 mEq/L (normal 135-145 mEq/L); blood urea nitrogen 10 mg/dL (normal 7-22 mg/dL); serum creatinine, 0.4 mg/dL (normal 0.3-0.7 mg/dL). The sodium concentration of a random sample of urine is 100 mEq/L (normal 130-260 mEq/24 h). An increase in which of the following hormones is the most likely cause of these findings?
Multiple Choice
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A 60-year-old hypertensive man is diagnosed with stenosis of a major renal artery. To compensate for decreased blood perfusion of the affected kidney, he produces an excess of the compound labeled X in the figure below. Which of the following best characterizes compound X? img
Multiple Choice
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A 14-year-old boy complains of a 3-week history of weight loss, excessive thirst, and urination. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is suspected. Laboratory testing of blood samples will most likely show:
Multiple Choice
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A 15-year-old boy complains of vomiting, anorexia, and weight loss. Laboratory studies reveal: serum calcium 13 mg/dL (normal 8.7-10.6 mg/dL); blood urea nitrogen 36 mg/dL (normal 7-22 mg/dL); serum creatinine, 1.8 mg/dL (normal 0.3-0.7 mg/dL). He has been taking several high-potency vitamin supplements daily for the past year as part of a 'body-building' program. An excess of which of the following vitamins is the most likely cause of these findings?
Multiple Choice
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