● Planning: This involves negotiating and bargaining with gatekeepers for access.
● Negotiation: The researcher should expect to negotiate and explain what he or she is doing over and over in the field; negotiation occurs with each new member in the field site for developing a stable relationship,gaining access,developing trust,obtaining information,and reducing potentially hostile reactions.
● Disclosure: A researcher has to decide how much to reveal about him or herself and the research project.Disclosure ranges on a continuum from being a fully covert observer,in which no one in the field is aware that research is taking place,to the opposite end,as an overt observer,where everyone knows the specifics of the research project.
● Ethnography is basically describing a culture and understanding another way of life from the native or insider's point of view.
● Ethnographies are a particular approach to doing fieldwork: doing field research is a core part of ethnography but usually just one part of an ethnographic study.
● An ethnographer usually obtains and analyzes other forms of data as well,including qualitative interviews and archival documents.
● Ethnography is a collection of methods that are tied together by an underlying theoretical orientation.