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Environment

Environmental Science

Quiz 13 :

Field Research

Quiz 13 :

Field Research

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What are three important issues the field researcher should consider when devising a strategy for entering a field research site?
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● Planning: This involves negotiating and bargaining with gatekeepers for access.
● Negotiation: The researcher should expect to negotiate and explain what he or she is doing over and over in the field; negotiation occurs with each new member in the field site for developing a stable relationship,gaining access,developing trust,obtaining information,and reducing potentially hostile reactions.
● Disclosure: A researcher has to decide how much to reveal about him or herself and the research project.Disclosure ranges on a continuum from being a fully covert observer,in which no one in the field is aware that research is taking place,to the opposite end,as an overt observer,where everyone knows the specifics of the research project.

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Which of the following statements best describes the art and logic of field research?
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D

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What is ethnography? Why is ethnography often considered a methodology rather than a method?
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● Ethnography is basically describing a culture and understanding another way of life from the native or insider's point of view.
● Ethnographies are a particular approach to doing fieldwork: doing field research is a core part of ethnography but usually just one part of an ethnographic study.
● An ethnographer usually obtains and analyzes other forms of data as well,including qualitative interviews and archival documents.
● Ethnography is a collection of methods that are tied together by an underlying theoretical orientation.

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Field researchers often use nonprobability samples,which means that they may take a smaller,selective set of observations from all possible observations.Identify and briefly describe four different types of units a field researcher might sample.
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What three factors are relevant when choosing a field site? Which of these three factors are most applicable to the beginner field researcher? Why?
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A cultural norm,such as knowing the appropriate distance at which to stand from others,is a specific example of
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Describe the criteria by which qualitative studies can be assessed that generally correspond to the quantitative concerns of validity,generalizability,reliability,and objectivity.How can the qualitative researcher be sure that each of these criteria is met in his or her research project?
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Naturalism and direct involvement mean that field research is ________ than quantitative research.
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What kinds of issues are field researchers confronted with when it comes to the problem of adopting social roles in the field research setting?
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Ethnography is often considered a ________ rather than a ________.
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In the field,the researcher becomes an instrument that absorbs all sources of information.What sorts of things does a field researcher observe in order to collect good qualitative field data? Provide examples for each one.
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Describe four ethical dilemmas that field researchers are most likely to confront during and after the course of their research.How should the field researcher deal with each dilemma?
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When it comes to adopting a role in the field research setting,what three questions should the researcher ask him or herself? Briefly describe each issue.
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Describe the basic steps a researcher should follow when preparing a field research project.
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What type of study best typifies field research?
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Briefly describe the main features of "participatory action research" (PAR).What one major feature distinguishes this approach from all other quantitative and qualitative approaches?
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What are five things a field researcher does? Briefly describe each one.
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What are the three levels of involvement in field research? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each one?
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Describe the various types of field notes that researchers take.What function does each type serve?
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What are three types of maps and diagrams a field researcher would create? What is the purpose of maps and diagrams?
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