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Biological Science Study Set 3

Biology

Quiz 24 :

Speciation

Quiz 24 :

Speciation

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Which of the following does not tend to promote speciation?
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Multiple Choice
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Answer:

B

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Use the following information when answering the corresponding questions). About 3 million years ago, the Isthmus of Panama a narrow strip of land connecting North and South America) formed, divid marine organisms into Pacific and Caribbean populations. Researchers have examined species of snapping shrimp on both sid isthmus. Based on the morphospecies concept, there appeared to be seven pairs of species, with one species of each pair in the Pacific and the other in the Caribbean. The different species pairs live at somewhat different depths in the ocean. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences, the researchers estimated phylogenies and found that each of these species pairs, separated by the isthmus, were indeed each other's closest relatives. The researchers investigated mating in the lab and found that many species pairs were not very interested in courting with each other, and any that did mate almost never produced fertile offspring. N. Knowlton, L. A. Weigt, L. A. Solorzano, D. K. Mills, and E. Bermingham. 1993. Divergence in proteins, mitochondrial DNA, and reproductive incompatibility across the Isthmus of Panama. Science 260:1629- 32.) -If the isthmus formed gradually rather than suddenly, what pattern of genetic divergence would you expect to find in these species pairs?
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Multiple Choice
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Answer:

A

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Two researchers experimentally formed tetraploid frogs by fertilizing diploid eggs from Rana porosa brevipoda with diploid sperm from Rana nigromaculata. When they mated these tetraploid frogs with each other, most of the offspring that survived to maturity were tetraploid, with chromosome sets of both diploid parent species. Based on these results, if this type of tetraploid formed in the wild, what would be the result? Y. Kondo and A. Kashiwagi. 2004. Experimentally induced autotetraploidy and allotetraploidy in two Japanese pond frogs. Journal of Herpetology 383):381- 92.)
Free
Multiple Choice
Answer:

Answer:

B

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You want to study divergence of populations, and you need to maximize the rate of divergence in order to see results within the period of your grant funding. You will form a new population by taking some individuals from a source population and isolating them so the two populations cannot interbreed. What combination of characteristics would maximize your chance of seeing divergence in this study? 1) Choose a random sample of individuals to form the new population. 2) Choose individuals from one extreme to form the new population. 3) Choose a species to study that produces many offspring. 4) Choose a species to study that produces a few, large offspring. 5) Place the new population in the same type of environment as the source population. 6) Place the new population in a novel environment compared to that of the source population.
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What keeps the two populations separate?
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How are two different species most likely to evolve from one ancestral species?
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Many songbirds breed in North America in the spring and summer and then migrate to Central and South America in the fall. They spend the winter in these warmer areas, where they feed and prepare for the spring migration north and another breeding season. Two hypothetical species of sparrow, A and B, overwinter together in mixed flocks in Costa Rica. In spring, species A goes to the east coast of North America, and species B goes to the west coast. What can you say about the isolating mechanisms of these two species?
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Three populations of crickets look very similar, but the males have courtship songs that sound different. What function would this difference in song likely serve if the populations came into contact?
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In hybrid zones where reinforcement is occurring, you should see a decline in
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Use the following information when answering the corresponding questions). About 3 million years ago, the Isthmus of Panama a narrow strip of land connecting North and South America) formed, divid marine organisms into Pacific and Caribbean populations. Researchers have examined species of snapping shrimp on both sid isthmus. Based on the morphospecies concept, there appeared to be seven pairs of species, with one species of each pair in the Pacific and the other in the Caribbean. The different species pairs live at somewhat different depths in the ocean. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences, the researchers estimated phylogenies and found that each of these species pairs, separated by the isthmus, were indeed each other's closest relatives. The researchers investigated mating in the lab and found that many species pairs were not very interested in courting with each other, and any that did mate almost never produced fertile offspring. N. Knowlton, L. A. Weigt, L. A. Solorzano, D. K. Mills, and E. Bermingham. 1993. Divergence in proteins, mitochondrial DNA, and reproductive incompatibility across the Isthmus of Panama. Science 260:1629- 32.) -The sister populations on opposite sides of the isthmus are true species under which species concept?
Multiple Choice
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The peppered moth has a light and dark colour morph; the light morph was common in pre- industrial England. Increased pollution during the Industrial Revolution allowed dark morph moths to camouflage effectively against the dark, sooty background. Consequently, the dark morph became more common in industrial areas while the light morph remained common elsewhere. Recently, dark morph moths have been decreasing with reductions in pollution. Should the two morphs be considered separate species?
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House finches were found only in western North America until 1939, when a few individuals were released in New York City. These individuals established a breeding population and gradually expanded their range. The western population also expanded its range somewhat eastward, and the two populations have recently come in contact. If the two forms were unable to interbreed when their expanding ranges meet, what would this situation illustrate?
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A population of earthworms lives on an island in the middle of a river. Damming of the river causes flooding on the island, and only the highest points remain above water, creating several smaller islands with Now- separate earthworm populations on them. The earthworms cannot swim. Which of the following best describes this event?
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Which of the following statements explains why animals are less likely than plants to speciate by polyploidy?
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The two populations are
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Most causes of speciation are relatively slow, in that they may take many generations of organism to see changes, EXCEPT
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Why is speciation by polyploidy more likely in plants than in animals?
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Use the following information when answering the corresponding questions). About 3 million years ago, the Isthmus of Panama a narrow strip of land connecting North and South America) formed, divid marine organisms into Pacific and Caribbean populations. Researchers have examined species of snapping shrimp on both sid isthmus. Based on the morphospecies concept, there appeared to be seven pairs of species, with one species of each pair in the Pacific and the other in the Caribbean. The different species pairs live at somewhat different depths in the ocean. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences, the researchers estimated phylogenies and found that each of these species pairs, separated by the isthmus, were indeed each other's closest relatives. The researchers investigated mating in the lab and found that many species pairs were not very interested in courting with each other, and any that did mate almost never produced fertile offspring. N. Knowlton, L. A. Weigt, L. A. Solorzano, D. K. Mills, and E. Bermingham. 1993. Divergence in proteins, mitochondrial DNA, and reproductive incompatibility across the Isthmus of Panama. Science 260:1629- 32.) -Which of the following describes the most likely order of events in speciation?
Multiple Choice
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The snake family Typhlopidae consists of small, burrowing species with vestigial eyes. They are found in Australia, sub- Saharan Africa, India and some adjacent areas, and South America. What is the most likely explanation for this distribution?
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Which of the following could be a vicariance event for species in that habitat?
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