Quiz 5: Motor Control Theories
Health & Kinesiology
The world-renowned physicist Stephen Hawking stated that which of the following should describe a large class of observations and accurately predict the results of future observations? A) Hypothesis B) Model C) Schema D) Theory
Coordination should be considered in terms of body and limb movement patterns in relation to: A) How the body and limb movement patterns can self-organize B) Patterns of environmental objects and events C) The characteristics of open- and closed-loop control systems D) The invariant features of a generalized motor program
The degrees of freedom problem, which the nervous system must solve so that a person can achieve the action goal of a complex motor skill, involves determining: A) If an open-loop or closed-loop system is needed to control the action B) The amount of force needed to achieve an action goal C) The organization of muscles, limbs, and joints needed to achieve an action goal D) Which environmental cues are relevant for performing the skill
An important difference between the open- and closed-loop control systems is that the: A) Closed-loop system involves feedback; the open-loop system does not B) Open-loop system involves feedback; the closed-loop system does not C) Closed-loop system involves movement instructions; the open-loop system does not D) Open-loop system involves movement instructions; the closed-loop system does not
The action of throwing a dart at a dartboard is an example of a motor skill that is controlled by: A) A closed-loop control system B) An open-loop control system C) Both open-loop and closed-loop control systems D) Feedback
Which of the following types of motor control theories emphasizes the role of a memory representation in the control of coordinated action? A) Chaos theories B) Dynamical systems theories C) Motor program theories D) All of these
According to Schmidt's motor program-based theory of motor control, the mechanism primarily responsible for the control of coordinated movement controls: A) A class of actions B) All actions involving limbs on the same side C) All actions involving the same limb D) Specific movements
According to Schmidt's motor program-based theory of motor control, which of the following would be controlled by the same generalized motor program (GMP)? A) Hitting a golf ball and hitting a pitched baseball B) Throwing a ball overhand and underhand C) Using either hand to reach for and grasp an object D) Walking and running
In Shapiro and others' experiment on relative timing patterns in walking and running, a motor program-based theory of motor control would conclude that: A) A motor program type of control mechanism does not control walking or running B) Both walking and running are controlled by the same GMP C) Each of the various speeds of walking and running is controlled by its own GMP D) One GMP controls walking and a different GMP controls running
According to the dynamical systems theory, which of the following define, or identify, a specific movement pattern? A) Control parameters B) Movement duration C) Order parameters D) Relative timing
The dynamical systems theory indicates that skilled action is controlled by the nervous system constraining functionally specific collectives of muscles and joints, which are known as: A) Coordinative structures B) Degrees of freedom C) Generalized motor programs D) Motor units
According to a dynamical systems view of motor control, skilled action occurs on the basis of action units: A) Acting according to motor program commands B) Receiving commands from a control executive C) Receiving feedback as movement occurs D) Self organizing
In dynamical systems terminology, an attractor refers to a: A) Complex movement B) Motor program C) Movement pattern stable state D) State of coordination instability
According to dynamical systems theory, the speed at which an action is performed is an example of: A) A control parameter B) An order parameter C) An organizational variable D) A stable state
A good example of a "self-organizing system" is a: A) Computer B) DVR programmed to record a TV program at a specific time C) Hurricane D) Thermostat-based control system for heating and cooling a house
The affordance concept suggests that we: A) Perceive the environment with respect to the elementary properties of objects, surfaces, and people B) Perceive the environment relative to our own characteristics (e.g., height, leg length, etc.) C) Perceive the environment in terms of possibilities for action D) Both b. and c.
An important coordination-related problem that a theory of motor control must provide a solution for is the ________ problem.
According to Schmidt's motor program-based theory of movement control, relative timing is a(n) ________ of a generalized motor program (GMP).
Dynamical systems theories of motor control view the control of complex coordinated action from the perspective of ________ dynamics.
Dynamical systems theory de-emphasizes the role of executive commands to the musculature and emphasizes the role of the ______ properties of the body and limbs.
According to a dynamical systems theory, the muscles and joints that act together to enable a person to reach and grasp a cup are known as a ________.
According to the dynamical systems theory, walking and running represent two distinct ________ states of coordination.
You perform a four-component movement in 10 sec, and then in 20 sec. If relative time is invariant, and component 1 takes 2.5 sec for the 10-sec movement time, component 1 would require ______ sec for the 20-sec movement time.
According to the perception-action coupling literature, the reciprocal fit between the characteristics of a person and the characteristics of the environment that permit specific actions, such as stairs having the physical characteristics to permit stair climbing, are referred to as _____________.
When we consider the assessment of movement characteristics associated with the performance of a skill, it is necessary to use the term coordination to refer to the relationship among the joints and segments at any specific point in time during the skill performance.
A traffic signal that is preset to cycle through the time sequences for the onset of the green-yellow-red light sequence is a mechanical example of an open-loop control system.
Schmidt's Schema Theory is an example of a "central" theory of motor control because it emphasizes the role played by performance environment characteristics.
An example of an invariant feature of a generalized motor program (GMP) is the overall speed involved in performing a skill.
That people spontaneously change from a walking to a running coordination pattern at a certain speed demonstrates that patterns of movement coordination can self-organize.
Perception-action coupling is an essential element in accounting for the motor control of open motor skills such as catching a thrown ball.