As the Amount of Sodium Reabsorbed by the Distal Convoluted
As the amount of sodium reabsorbed by the distal convoluted tubule increases, the amount of _____ increases. A) potassium ions absorbed also B) hydrogen ions absorbed also C) potassium ions secreted D) Both A and B are correct.
If the glomerular hydrostatic pressure is 67 mm Hg, the glomerular osmotic pressure is 28 mm Hg, the capsular hydrostatic pressure is 17 mm Hg, and the capsular osmotic pressure is 0 mm Hg, the effective filtration pressure (EFP) would be _____ mm Hg. A) 22 B) 56 C) 78 D) There is not enough information to determine the EFP.
What effect do aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) have on urine volume? A) Because water reabsorption in the distal and collecting tubules doesn't require ADH, the aldosterone mechanism must work separately from the ADH mechanism to maintain homeostasis of the fluid content in the body. B) Both aldosterone and ADH decrease distal and collecting tubule absorption of sodium, which in turn causes an osmotic imbalance that drives the reabsorption of water from the tubule. C) Because water reabsorption in the distal and collecting tubules requires ADH, the aldosterone mechanism must work in concert with the ADH mechanism if homeostasis of the fluid content in the body is to be maintained. D) Both aldosterone and ADH increase distal and collecting tubule absorption of sodium, which in turn causes an osmotic imbalance that stops the reabsorption of water from the tubule.
What effect on the treatment of secondary hypertension would you expect from angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor drugs? A) When secondary hypertension occurs, the cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus secrete renin, which in turn results in angiotensin production and increased blood pressure, so giving ACE inhibitors may reduce the production of angiotensin and lower the blood pressure. B) Secondary hypertension is caused by stenosis of the renal artery, so ACE inhibitors will relax the vessel, thus reducing blood pressure. C) Secondary hypertension is caused by stenosis of the renal artery, so ACE inhibitors will decrease atherosclerotic plaque and result in a lower blood pressure. D) ACE inhibitors will not have any effect on secondary hypertension.