1.30.Research on social factors and the risk for PTSD focuses primarily on the nature of the trauma,the individual's level of exposure to it,and __________________.
C)levels of cortisol
D)the availability of social support following the trauma
1.31.Following September 11,New York City college students had lower rates of PTSD if they were better at enhancing and suppressing emotional expression.This is an example of what psychologist Edna Foa calls emotional processing,which involves three key stages.Which of the following is one of her stages?
A)Victims need to engage in specialized counseling as soon as possible after the event.
B)Victims must engage emotionally with their traumatic memories.
C)Victims need to find a way to forget about their chaotic experience.
D)Victims must come to believe that the world is a terrible place.
1.32.When people with PTSD are able to integrate the experience of trauma and find some broader reason or higher value for enduring it,they are engaging in the task of
D)denying the reality of their pain.
1.33.The term given to positive changes resulting from trauma is