Refer to Figure 12-13
Refer to Figure 12-13.If the market price is P1,what is the allocatively efficient output level? A) Q0 B) Q1 C) Q2 D) There is no allocatively efficient output level because the firm is making a loss.
Assume that the LCD and plasma television sets industry is perfectly competitive.Suppose a producer develops a successful innovation that enables it to lower its cost of production.What happens in the short run and in the long run? A) Initially, the firm will be able to increase its profit significantly, but in the long run its profits will still be greater than zero but lower than its short run profits because other firms would also innovate. B) The firm will probably incur losses temporarily because of the high cost of the innovation, but in the long run it will start earning positive profits. C) This firm will be able to earn above normal profits indefinitely if it obtains a patent for its innovation. D) The firm will be able to increase its profits temporarily, but in the long run its profits will be eliminated as other firms copy the innovation.
In early 2007,Pioneer and JVC,two Japanese electronics firms,each announced that their profits were going to be lower than expected because they both had to cut prices for LCD and plasma television sets.Which of the following could explain why these firms did not simply raise their prices and increase their profits? A) The move to cut prices is probably just a temporary one to gain market share. In the long run the firms will raise prices and be able to increase their profits. B) Most likely, intense competition between these two major producers probably pushed prices down. Thereafter, each feared that it would lose its customers to the other if it raised its prices. C) In perfect competition, prices are determined by the market and firms will keep lowering prices until there are no profits to be earned. D) The firms are still making profits, just not as high as expected so there is room to lower prices until one can force the other out of business.
Writing in the New York Times on the technology boom of the late 1990s,Michael Lewis argues,"The sad truth,for investors,seems to be that most of the benefits of new technologies are passed right through to consumers free of charge." What does Lewis means by the benefits of new technology being "passed right through to consumers free of charge"? A) Firms in perfect competition are price takers. Since they cannot influence price, they cannot dictate who benefits from new technologies, even if the benefits of new technology are being "passed right through to consumers free of charge." B) In perfect competition, price equals marginal cost of production. In this sense, consumers receive the new technology "free of charge." C) In the long run, price equals the lowest possible average cost of production. In this sense, consumers receive the new technology "free of charge." D) In perfect competition, consumers place a value on the good equal to its marginal cost of production and since they are willing to pay the marginal valuation of the good, they are essentially receiving the new technology "free of charge."