When Japan stagnated in the 1990s,the weaknesses of _________ were highlighted.
A) market-based finance
B) bank-based finance
C) the yen
D) the Japanese services sectors
E) automatic stabilizers
Bank-led finance has been a major characteristic of advanced economies such as
A) the U.S.
C) the U.K.
The strictly regulated financial systems in the period after World War II and into the 1970s were based on the concern that
A) governments were too involved in the day-to-day operations of the central banks.
B) governments were unable to control the banking system.
C) banks would take on risks that could eventually bring down the banking system.
D) banks faced international competition and could not offer competitive rates of interest.
E) financial markets were not sufficiently developed to offer viable alternatives for investors.
The trend in high-income nations from the 1980s until the great recession of 2008-2009 was towards a(n)
A) reduction in financial intermediaries.
B) more regulated financial system.
C) less regulated financial system.
D) elimination of central banks.
E) reduction in the volume of international capital flows.