As a teenager, Justin has found that he can work off his frustrated desires by playing heavy metal and punk rock on his electric guitar.Justin is utilizing the defense mechanism known as
Martin Seligman studied the case of a young marine who was being held prisoner during the Vietnam War.When the marine was not released on the date promised, he immediately lapsed into a deep depression, refused to eat or drink, and died shortly after.According to Seligman, this case illustrated the concept of
Researchers in San Antonio, Texas, asked older people if they were hopeful about the future.Those who answered "No" died at elevated rates, which illustrates the devastating effects of
According to Seligman, learned helplessness results because people learn that
A)they are powerless to avoid punishment.
B)successful escape attempts will be punished.
C)failure has certain rewards connected to it.
D)only predictable shocks can be avoided.