Regarding the Primitive Approaches Used as Therapy for Mental Illness,
Regarding the primitive approaches used as therapy for mental illness, which of the following statements is/are true?
A)Archaeological findings dating to the Stone Age suggest that most primitive approaches were marked by fear and superstitious belief in demons, witchcraft, and magic.
B)In ancient times, trepanning meant boring, chipping, or bashing holes into a patient's head to relieve pressure or release evil spirits.
C)During the Middle Ages when mental illness focused on demonology, physical torture was used to make the body an inhospitable place for the devil to reside.
D)All of these statements are true.
Trepanning, as a primitive procedure, involved boring a hole into the skull to
A)release "evil spirits."
B)shock patients into a remission of symptoms.
C)coerce and control disruptive patients.
D)punish those who had committed crimes.
_____ was a primitive procedure that was used to "release evil spirits" and consisted of boring, chipping, or bashing holes in the patients' heads.
As a modern procedure, trepanning, also called trephining, involves
A)the use of computer-generated images to present fear stimuli in the desensitization process.
B)the suppression of an undesirable response by associating it with aversive stimuli.
C)passing an electric shock directly through the brain to induce a convulsion.
D)any surgical procedure in which a hole is bored into the skull.