There are several reasons a child may feel the need to bully others. Children who engage in bullying behavior are often from families that live under less than ideal circumstances, including prevalent domestic violence or inconsistent and/or absent parenting. Children living under these conditions are not presented with the opportunities needed to develop the interpersonal and problem solving skills for normal social interaction, and thus resort to bullying behavior. Some children use bullying to get attention they are not receiving elsewhere. Other times, children exhibit bullying behavior as an outlet when they are subject to bullying by someone else. A child who is being bullied may exhibit behavioral changes indicating a problem. Children may complain of health problems or be reluctant to go to school. Parents might also notice a negative change in academic performance. Children might also exhibit changes in eating and sleeping habits that might indicate a problem. Telling children to avoid technology to avoid bullying is not an effective solution to the problem. Children use technology for academic work as well as socialization; it is unreasonable to avoid technology all together for the purpose of avoiding bullying. Additionally, by telling the child to avoid using technology to avoid bullying, the bully's behavior is validated. Children who engage in bullying should be punished for their behavior; however, expulsion may not be the most effective method. Expelling a student from school for bullying does not directly address the behavior. A more effective punishment would aim to reach the root of the bully's behavior and attempt to correct it. Parents should be at least partly responsible for children who engage in cyber-bullying. Parents should be monitoring their child's use of technology and be aware of the behaviors their child is engaging in and how they are engaging others through technology; this is not only for the sake of preventing bullying but also to protect their own children from bullies or other predatory behavior.
Preventative health - behaviors and choices that encourage and maintain health and well-being. Health - An overall state of wellness; previously believed to be the absence of illness. Health is comprised of emotional, mental, physical, and social well-being. Each component of health affects the others. Heredity - Characteristics transmitted from parents to offspring; heredity defines the limitations of a person's developmental and health potential. Predisposition - An inherited tendency toward an illness or condition; having a predisposition toward an illness increases the chance of developing the illness or disease. Sedentary - Characterized by little activity, or excessive sitting and little physical exercise or activity. Food insecurity - Limited access to foods high in nutritional value; uncertain or unreliable access to nutritionally adequate food. Nutrients - The chemical substances that make up food. Nutrients can be subdivided into two classes: those that provide energy, such as carbohydrates, protein, fats, and those that play other roles in metabolism, including minerals and vitamins. Resistance - An organisms ability to avert illness and infection; a person whose diet is adequately nutritious will be more resistant to illness than a malnourished person. Norms - An approximate time frame in which a child is likely to demonstrate a developmental skill. Norms are expressed in terms of time (weeks, months, years). Normal - A quality or trait common to a group of individuals; average. Growth - An increase in physical size; growth may describe an individual body part or the entire body. Head circumference - The distance around the largest part of the head. Head circumference serves as a measure of brain growth and development. Attachment - The emotional connection between an infant and their primary caregiver(s), such as parents or child care providers. Deciduous teeth - "baby teeth". The initial set of twenty teeth that are temporary and begin to fall out in children around the age of 5 years. Development - Intellectual growth and change; often reflected in the achievement of new physical and motor skills as well as cognitive. Neurons - Brain cells; neurons transmit electrical signals between themselves as well as to other parts of the body to permit movement. Plasticity - The ability of the brain to create and reorganize neural pathways. Children's brains are very plastic, making them very receptive to learning new skills. Well child - A child who experiences positively all of the aspects of health, including physical, mental, emotional, and social health. Fluorosis - The presence of white or brown spots on the teeth resulting from excessive intake of fluoride during tooth development. Self-concept - A person's sense of self, who they are, and their role in society. A child's self-concept develops as the result of biological and environmental factors. Self-esteem - A person's sense of worth or value; an attitude carried toward oneself. Toxic stress - Stress that children cannot control. Toxic stressors include verbal and physical abuse, neglect, or illness. Toxic stress is often prolonged and intense. Cyber-bullying - Bullying (threatening or embarrassing harassment) that occurs through the use of electronic devices, including email, cell phones, or social media. Resilient - The ability to withstand and/or recover from difficulty.
The lifestyle choices a person makes can positively or negatively affect their health. Eating nutritious foods, engaging in regular physical activity, managing stress, getting adequate sleep, and seeking preventative dental and medical care all positively affect long-term health. A proper diet provides fuel and nutrients to maintain a healthy body, while engaging in physical activity helps keep the heart and lungs healthy and also provides an outlet for mental and physical stress. Preventative dental care prevents cavities and other oral infections that can cause other complications; similarly, preventative medical care allows health care providers to foresee medical issues and proactively treat them. Other lifestyle choices have adverse affects on health. Choosing to eat foods that are high in saturated fats can cause excessive weight gain; these foods are often not very nutrient dense, and can also cause malnutrition. A sedentary or inactive lifestyle causes muscles to weaken and atrophy. Insufficient sleep is known to cause many health ailments. Adequate sleep is important for physical and mental recovery. Failing to seek preventative dental and medical care can aid in the development of many preventable illnesses.
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