Microeconomics Study Set 47

Business

Quiz 24 :

Earnings Differences Between Men and Women.

Quiz 24 :

Earnings Differences Between Men and Women.

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Is employment discrimination the major cause of earnings differences between men and women Carefully justify your answer.
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Gender based discrimination in employment is one of major causes responsible for differences in wages between men and women. Studies so far conducted in the US have provided enough evidences related to discrimination in employment.
Evidences suggest that even after controlling the factors like age, education, preferences, etc., that causes differences in wages between men and women; there still remain some "unexplained" factors.
These "unexplained" factors constitute about 5 to 7 percent of the female to male (F/M) ratio of 80 per cent in 2007 and economists' attributes this to discrimination.
However, the argument is not that watertight. The very size of the "unexplained" factor in total F/M ratio makes the argument untenable. There are also other factors that cause gender gap in wages.
These include:
• Age,
• Marital status,
• Preferences of women whether to take part-time employment or full-time employment,
• Education,
• Skill level, and
• Career objectives of women.

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*Between 1960 and 1990, the labor force participation rate of married women approximately doubled. What impact did this influx of married workers into the labor force have on (a) the average years of work experience of women relative to men, (b) the mean hours of work time of women relative to men, and (c) the female- male earnings ratio
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With the increase in the labor participation by married women between 1960 and 1990:
a) Many women workers would have entered the labor market with little work experience; hence influx of married women into labor market will lead to decline in the average work experience of women relative to men.
b) Since many of the married women also have traditional household responsibilities, therefore they would search for part-time employment. As a result mean hours of work of women relative to men would decline.
c) The female/male earnings ratio will fall with married women entering the labor force.

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Physical strength is important in some jobs. Do you think differences in physical strength between men and women contribute to earnings differences according to gender Why or why not Do they also influence the share of men relative to women who will pursue a college education Explain.
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Jobs demanding physical strength, say in construction, do cause differences in wages between men and women. It is because:
• Physically demanding jobs offer highly attractive opportunities and is paid highly, and
• Males are entering the job market at an earlier age so as to reduce the high opportunity cost which will make them more experienced over time.
Yes, jobs demanding physically strength do influence the gender composition of colleges. Many male students leave the college in between so as to join these attractive jobs.
As they believe that if they won't leave the job at early age they may forgo the opportunity cost in terms of high salary.

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*In 2011, the median earnings of single men working fulltime, year-round were only 59 percent of their married counterparts. Does this indicate that employment discrimination existed against single men and in favor of married men
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Compared to women, men are overrepresented in occupations like coal mining and construction, in which working conditions are more dangerous. For example, 4,308 American men were killed on the job in 2011, compared to 385 women. How will the more dangerous working conditions of men influence their earnings relative to women Explain.
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