Quiz 11: Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising


Advertisement is most powerful source of persuasion. Customers are targeted with the help of print and digital media that uses aesthetics to motivate target customers to buy advertised products or services. Brands are now receiving endorsement from variety of popular celebrities. Companies select celebrities based on; attractiveness, expertise or trustworthiness. It has been seen that customers seek expert advice when highly involved in advertisement. For example, an endorsement of toothpaste by dentist or medical expert influences the decision of toothpaste buyer and ensures them about the quality. Customers are persuaded from endorsement when endorser looks attractive to the customer, can provide expert information or advice or customers trust their opinion. Television actors, movies personalities, athlete, and medical experts are widely used to endorse various products related to their fields. TW is an effective endorser of golf sport. In spite of his off-course troubles he still earn much better than other golfers who are endorsing sports items. Other popular celebrities, having highest endorsement income: • LJ, basketball player, is another name of highest paid endorser of basketball related items. His popularity and liking by public help the brand to influence buying decision. Young and dynamic basketball player attracts large number of young basketball players and people who like basketball game. • AR, baseball player is popular among many baseball players and listed in world's highest paid athletes. His income from endorsements is more than lakhs of dollars. His attractiveness and expertise in baseball influence buyers in taking buying decision of baseball items. • AR is among top football players. Football is among most popular game of United States, and hence many companies use football celebrities to endorse related products. AR is among those players who are effectively using football as profession to endorse various products. • DJ, a retired baseball player has played very well for long period of time and has become an icon of baseball image. Irrespective of the fact that he is retired from the game, his popularity and influence over baseball players or among people who have passion of baseball is still strong as of young baseball celebrities. • DB is former soccer player of United Kingdom and stands in the list of highest paid athletes. He has strong impact on customers' decisions of selection of brand related to cold drink, apparel, and soccer items. • MS is among youngest tennis players and highest paid tennis player. Apart from tennis, she endorses watches, jewelry, and digital camera. Endorsement of diversified range of products, her endorsement income is highest of her age group. Her smartness, look, attractive appearance and expert knowledge of tennis motivate customers to consider her choice of products.

A quote from philosopher AN "seek simplicity and distrust it" refer to making the fact simpler to understand. It aims to make the complex facts simple and easily understandable to make the message effective and less time consuming. To make the advertisement simple, marketer tries to work on transmitting message or information about brand in simple or easy to understand manner. There are other modes too that help to get attention of customers and create excitement among customers to get more information about brand. Humor is one of such tactic adopted by companies these days in advertising and promotional channels. It has been noticed that customers do not find monotonous advertisement attractive. But when a flavor of humor is added whether, in terms of music, image or graphics in advertisement then it excites and surprise customers to feel their involvement in advertisement. For example, an advertisement of football shows trained dog playing football in the street and enjoying it, excites viewers and surprise them to see how dog is playing football. Humor is icing on cake for influencing customers towards promotion of brand. It helps them to remember the brand and create another mode of awareness. For example, humorous advertisement is when shared in parties or among college students while sitting in cafeteria create awareness about the brand and promote others to see advertisement. Although humor does not ensure credibility of the source, appealing effects enhances the influential power of advertisement.

Attractiveness of endorser is an important prerequisite for effective advertisement. It should be based on similarity, familiarity and liking of endorser by public at large. Customers are persuaded for buying advertised products when they like and consider the endorser attractive. The skills like; personality, lifestyle, professional power and intellectual skills are important to make the celebrity a favorite choice for endorsement. The requirement here is customers must perceive endorser to be attractive in all terms; physical and intellectual, this will ensure that they adopt beliefs, attitude, interest, liking and preference of endorser. Factors determining celebrity endorsement: • Celebrity and brand matchup • Celebrity and audience matchup • Credibility of celebrity • Endorsement saturation factor • Likelihood of getting into trouble factor DB, a British soccer star as an attractive endorser helps in bringing beliefs, attitude, and thought similar to endorser among customers. His attractiveness ties together the likelihood, and familiarity towards the brand. The more customers want to be like "DB", the more effective the message will be. When people watch DB kick a soccer ball, they feel as if they are kicking the ball. This reaction is the influential power of celebrity. His attractiveness fulfills many of celebrity endorsement factors; his matchup with brand and audience, the credibility of his knowledge makes him attractive choice of many popular brands.