Criminal Justice Today
Quiz 13 :
Prisons and Jails
The following are the types of punishment used before the advent of imprisonment as a criminal sanction : During early days, punishments were very inhumane and cruel. They type of punishments were as follows : • Branding • Workhouses • Flogging • Exile • Public humiliation • Mutilation It is suggested that U.S. returned to public humiliation and physical punishment, and most of them considered these option unacceptable. But many other countries suggest that such punishments will provoke rather than deter.
The following are the social characteristics of the current prisoners : • Several people are sentenced to the state prisons and have been convicted of violent crimes. In this, most of prisoners are convicted for drug crimes. • Imprisonment varies drastically among several states in the country. • There has been huge growing disparity among imprisonment rates for whites and black people. In late 20s, there were around 1,172 white men imprisoned for every 100,000 white men and 8,367 black men for every 100,000 black men. • In U.S., almost 17% black people have been sentenced to the prison. • In the past, majority of the men have been sentenced to jail compared to women in U.S., but the incarceration rate for women has been increasing drastically in the current scenario.
The development of prison in the U.S. is given below : The Pennsylvania structure was created by Q in the year 1790.The Auburn method was related to as congregate but quiet system, which was developed during 1820. In this appearance, prisoners were in custody in a congregate manner but needed to sustain silence. During 1876, the reformatory theory was used to indeterminate sentencing in an effort to restore inmates. It fell as a victim to the beginning of the industrial prison era where state found the occasion to exploit on convict labor. During 1890, industrial prisons were created. The end of the industrial prison age was brought regarding moratorium on free market prison industries implemented by the Ashurst Summer act 1935. The punitive year followed, described by an improved objective on custody and institutional protection an out of sight, out of mind philosophy in American attitude towards inmates. During 1945, the management period evolved. Based on a medical representation of corrections, the philosophy implied that offenders were sick and could be rehabilitated through proper treatment. The community-based setup, started in the mid-1960s, represented a society away from traditional imprisonment and an effort to reform offenders' performance within restricted communities. Increased recidivism rates, ensuing in public dissatisfaction, eventually led to a warehousing policy in the late 1970s. Warehousing seeks to avoid recurring crime but abandons any anticipate of rehabilitation. It has resulted in high rate of overfilling in prisons all over the country. The mid-1990s experienced the materialization of the just deserts era. Its importance is on individual responsibility for one's actions, with the obligation of deserved penalty as the logical significance of unfair actions. Just deserts continues to be the most important perception in the criminal justice ground at present, although there are some signs that it is beginning to diminish Clearly, each age has been based on dissatisfaction with the effects of the preceding philosophy, leading to a "trying something different" approach. The period's emphases seem to pass continually through a punishment to rehabilitation (punishment cycle), with the focus changing to occupy social attitudes toward criminal offenders. The repetition of prison industries, efforts taken to improvising of the quality in jail life, and the progress towards private prisons and regional jails symbolize the ongoing efforts to determine improved ways to manage incarceration of convicted offender.