According to empirical research, which of the following personality styles has not been consistently associated with depression?
B) The introjective style
C) The anaclitic style
Psychoanalytic views of mood disorders focus on the analogy between depression and
A) oedipal strivings.
C) anal fixation.
Research with the McGill Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) has shown a strong association between self-criticism and depression but a weaker association between dependency and depression. Why?
A) Self-criticism and dependency are negatively correlated.
B) Self-criticism accounts for a significant proportion of the variance in dependency.
C) The scale does not distinguish adaptive from maladaptive dependency.
D) In most cases, dependency is a protective factor for depression despite its negative implications for other life tasks.
Research by Mongrain and Leather (2006) showed that _____ and _____ interact to predict the recurrence of depression in graduate students.
A) self-criticism; previous major depression episodes
B) self-criticism; maladaptive dependency
C) maladaptive dependency; previous major depression episodes
D) none of the above