Quiz 12: Environmental Geology and Earth Resources

Geology/Geography/Oceanography/Atmospheric Sciences

Weathering: The process of conversion of the rocks into small particles is called the weathering. It is mainly two types: 1. Mechanical weathering 2. Chemical weathering. Mechanical weathering: In the mechanical weathering an only physical change occurs, no chemical changes. Chemical weathering: In the chemical weathering chemical changes occur, for example oxidation hydrolysis etc. These processes are very helpful in the recycling of rocks; as the recycling process is depend on the type of rocks, for that inter-conversation these processes are very useful. The processes and the components of the rock cycle are dependents on the type of rock. The rock cycle contain mainly following steps: creation, destruction, and metamorphosis. There are main three major rocks: 1. Igneous rock: this rock is made by magna or lava. Magna extruded to the surface of the earth from volcanic vents, which cools quickly to converted igneous rock. 2. Metamorphic rocks: this rock is made from the melting, contorting, and re-crystallizing of the other rocks by tectonic forces, squeeze, fold, heat, and re-crystallization of solid rocks in the deep of the ground. 3. Sedimentary rocks: this rock is made from the loose grains of other rocks are consolidated by time and pressure. For example sandstone is a type of sedimentary rock is made by the layers of sand and mudstone consists of extremely hardened mud and clay.

Some sources of groundwater contamination are: 1. Septic systems 2. Landfills 3. Manufacturing activity 4. Industrial activity, etc. that leak contaminants into the aquifer renew or refresh region. 5. Deep wells offer a shortest way for contamination or toxic waste to come in groundwater. Groundwater pollution such a difficult problem due to the dwelling period for water in aquifers is so lengthy; it may be probable to pump the water out, clean it, and then pump it back in, but this method of clean up is not economically feasible.

The Mesozoic period begins and ends with appearance and disappearance of dinosaurs, similarly in the Precambrian period single celled fossils, in the Paleozoic period reptile's fossils, and in the Cenozoic period mammals and humans fossils.

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