Quiz 11: Water: Resources and Pollution

Geology/Geography/Oceanography/Atmospheric Sciences

Some sources of groundwater contamination are: 1. Septic systems 2. Landfills 3. Manufacturing activity 4. Industrial activity, etc. that leak contaminants into the aquifer renew or refresh region. 5. Deep wells offer a shortest way for contamination or toxic waste to come in groundwater. Groundwater pollution such a difficult problem due to the dwelling period for water in aquifers is so lengthy; it may be probable to pump the water out, clean it, and then pump it back in, but this method of clean up is not economically feasible.

The water is called as universal solvent, used for the maintenance of hemostatic condition on the earth environment. The water mainly used, for the plants, humans and various animals to regulate their growth and metabolic conditions. The hydrologic cycle is the main pathway, for the water recycle process. This process involves rain fall, oceans, and living beings. The earth mainly covered with 97.6% of salt water, 2.4% of fresh water. The fresh water is again is dividing into ground waters, ice and snow, fresh surface waters. The water is highly evaporated from oceans, lakes, rivers, ponds extra sources. The process of hydrologic cycle as followes. 1. A water molecule evaporates (or) disappears from the outside of the oceans to turn into vapor (or) steam. 2. Now this water-vapor is pressed higher into the atmosphere by increasing air currents, which converts the water-vapor into clouds, due to cooler temperatures. 3. Next this molecule of water falls over the earth as rain. 4. Finally again a molecule of water rejoins the ocean as part of a stream or groundwater overspill.

Primary water treatment: Primary water treatment is a simply or only physical process which separates hard or solid type garbage from sewage by settling tanks or reservoir. Secondary water treatment: Secondary water treatment is a simply or purely biological process which removes pathogens and natural matter from the water by aerobic bacteria, chlorine, and ultraviolet light. Tertiary water treatment: Tertiary water treatment is a totally chemical process which removes any remaining dissolved metals or nutrients especially nitrates and phosphates by chemical process