Quiz 3: Evolution, Species Interactions, and Biological Communities

Geology/Geography/Oceanography/Atmospheric Sciences

Tolerance limits to environmental factors to determine the distribution of specialized species: Explanation The minimum and maximum levels of a certain environmental factor out of a species are not able to survive, called as tolerance limits. For instance, saguaro cactus ( Carnegiea gigaantea ) grows in the dry, hot Sonoran desert of southern Arizona, and northern Mexico. Moreover, the freezing temperatures decide the maximum tolerance limit and choose how distant north this species can be found. This is because in north the caucus would freeze by killing the growing tips of the plant by ending the development.

Extremophiles live in extreme places such as the bottom of the ocean floor, deep inside of the earth's crust, or inside of hot springs such as those in Yellowstone National Park. They get the energy for the survival from Chemosynthesis, or extracting energy from inorganic chemical compounds such as hydrogen sulfide.

The ways in which organism deals with different types of competition: Explanation Competition among the members of different species is called Inter-specific. Inter-specific competition for limited amounts of resources can lead to changing places for the involved species, where each species starts adapting to use a slightly different resource to reduce competition. Otherwise, expanded competition for the same resources can lead one population to completely weigh down and die. Competition among members of the same species is called Intra-specific. In intra-specific competition, the individuals with genes that allow them to have better access to resources will be more likely to reproduce; thus leading to evolution within the species. Alternatively, sympatric speciation can lead to two distinct species that fill different ecological places.