Quiz 12: Global Nutrition
According to the "United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)" the term "under nutrition" is defined as a deteriorating health that consequences from a venerable dietary intake, which is not adequate to meet the daily nutritional needs of an individual. The primary causes of under nutrition are Food insecurity and large population, etc. There is an estimated 1 billion chronically undernourished people in the world. The attached picture below shows under nutrition people in million and by region: Thus, the correct option is (b) 1 billion. Since, the 1 billion is the correct figure, the option (a) 14 billion; option (c) 3 billion and option (d) 6 billion are incorrect.
The human body requires macro- and micro-nutrients for growth and maintenance. As such, everything that is consumed provides nutrients and energy in variable amounts. The nutrient requirement of the body for different nutrients varies. Consumption in excess or deficit of the desired amounts can lead to disorders and health problems. Malnutrition is the unhealthy condition of the body which results from eating so that the nutrients consumed do not match with the amounts in which they are required by the body. Obesity is an example of malnutrition which results from consuming excess amount of fat through food. Conditions when the food supplies are either scarce such as during famine or plenty, are generally linked to malnutrition. Undernutrition is unhealthy condition caused due to the consumption of nutrients through food in amounts that fall short of the desired or recommended requirements. Xerophthalmia and anemia are some of the examples of undernutrition which result from inadequate consumption of vitamin A and iron, respectively. Undernutrition is commonly associated with poverty. Undernutrition is the most common form of malnutrition.
Xerophthalmia is the deficiency of vitamin A that can cause night blindness. Iron deficiencies can cause anemia and can be fatal if not attended immediately. Iodine deficiency can cause hormonal imbalance and lead to goiter. Diarrhea is not a serious complication in adults. However, in children it causes substantial loss of fluid leading to dehydration, deficiency of minerals, and reduced immunity. The situation can be fatal. Undernutrition is the root cause of all these diseases. Xerophthalmia has affected around 500,000 children predominantly in Asia and Africa and caused death of 250,00 children. Iron deficiency has affected an estimated 1 billion people worldwide and contributed to 841,000 deaths worldwide, majority of which occur in the developing world. Iodine deficiency has affected around 50 million people, predominant in South America and Africa. The deaths attributed to iodine deficiency are less than 10,000 globally. The number of deaths caused by each of the diseases is less than that caused by diarrhea.Hence, the options a, b, and c would be incorrect. Diarrhea alone has been responsible for half of the entire mortality of over 5 million children. 2 billion out 7.2 billion people worldwide exposed to undernourishment are constantly exposed to death due to diarrhea. Poor sanitation and unsafe drinking water conditions are the primary factors aggravating the situation in the developing nations. Hence, the option would be the correct option.