Quiz 6: Proteins
Genetic information is carried from one cell to cell and hence one generation to another by means of genes, i.e., DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) present in the nucleus. Genes consist of specific sequences of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) nucleotides otherwise called "bases," which carry the message encoding for the synthesis of a protein. Thus, the correct option is (b) cell nucleus. The "instructions" for making proteins are carried by genes present in the nucleus but not in the cell membrane, cytoplasm and lysosomes. Thus, the options (a), (c) and (d) are incorrect.
Amino acids are important to meet the nitrogen requirement of the human body. There are a total 20 amino acids required by the body. Some of them are produced in the body, while others need to be consumed in the form of dietary proteins. Of the 20 amino acids required by the body, 11 of them can be produced within the body and hence need not be consumed through food. These are referred to as non-essential amino acids. Alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine are non-essential amino acids. The remaining 9 amino acids cannot be produced by the body and need to be consumed from outside. These are referred to as the essential amino acids. Histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine are essential amino acids. The essential amino acids are also referred to as limiting amino acids because they limit the amount of protein if not consumed in adequate amounts. If the essential amino acids are not consumed in required amounts the body tries to conserve the amount available within and slows down the production of the proteins associated with it. If the consumption of the essential proteins decreases to the level where the utilization of that protein is more than its production, the health of the individual deteriorates.
Complementary proteins are the proteins that can combine to compensate for the deficiencies in essential amino acids amongst them. Complementary protein patterns can result with mixed diets. Vegetables such as tomato, spinach, and peppers are rich in Vitamin C. Fruits such as orange, and grapes are rich in vitamin C. Vegetables like spinach and fruits like orange are rich in folate. Hence, options a, b, and d would be incorrect. Calcium and vitamin D are the most difficult for vegans to consume in adequate amounts. They need to take fortified products such as fortified soy milk or fortified orange juice for ensuring adequate consumption of calcium. Hence, the correct option would be option .