Quiz 4: Carbohydrates

Nutrition

The soluble dietary fiber found in foodstuffs such as fruits, oats, and beans can bind to cholesterol when in the gut, thereby reducing its absorption. This reduces the blood cholesterol levels. Diverticulosis is the condition in which pouches are formed that protrude out from the wall of the cecum. Lack of dietary fiber is believed to be one of the causes of diverticulosis. The insoluble type of dietary fiber can absorb large amounts of water without dissolving in it. If adequate water is not provided for the fiber to soak, it can become hard, making the feces difficult to pass, thereby causing constipation. The lack of adequate fluid intake leads to constipation. Hence, options 'a', 'c', and 'd' are incorrect. The insoluble type of dietary fiber found in foods such as rice, potato, and wheat bran, cannot dissolve in water. However, it can absorb water. When it absorbs the water in the food, it adds bulk to the feces. This shortens the transit time for the food through the digestive tract. Therefore, the correct option is option img .

Food consumed by animals provides macronutrients, namely, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Carbohydrates comprise of fiber, starch, and sugar. Together they are responsible for providing energy to the body and performing several important functions. Metabolism of starch and sugars results in the release of energy, which is used for basal metabolism, physical activity, thermic effect and thermogenesis. In general, every gram of carbohydrate provides 4 kcal of energy. Though energy is also obtained from the other macronutrients, glucose is the simplest form of sugar and thus can be utilized very rapidly compared to any other source of energy. it is also vital for cellular respiration. Starch is a concentrated source of sugar. It too is broken down like the sugars. When the starch and sugar is not utilized immediately by the body, it is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. The dietary fibers, which are also a form of carbohydrates, do not provide any energy. However, they perform several other critical functions. The fibers that are soluble can bind to the cholesterol in the gut of the intestine and reduce their levels in the blood. They also are responsible to maintain the health of the gut. The other type of fibers that are not soluble, do not dissolve in the water ingested in through the foods and fluids, but soak in it. This makes them bulky, which in turn reduces the transit time of food in the digestive tract. Due to these critical functions performed by them and their energy-yielding capabilities, we need carbohydrates in the diet.

Enzymes and hormones are substances secreted by the cells of the body having specific biochemical action. Amylase is an enzyme that specializes in breaking down the macronutrients consumed in the food. It is also present in the saliva, apart form the pancreas. Glucagon is a hormone produced in the alpha cells of the pancreas. The pancreas secretes it when the blood glucose levels in the body decrease. Glucagon converts the glycogen stored in the liver to monosaccharide glucose, thereby increasing the levels of blood glucose in the body. Hence, options 'a', 'b', and 'd' are incorrect. The pancreas also produce the hormone insulin. When the blood glucose levels increase, the pancreas secrete insulin. This insulin binds to the sugar molecules flowing in the blood and transports them to the cells that absorb glucose. When the blood sugar level comes within the normal blood sugar range, the secretion of insulin subsides. Therefore, the correct option is option img .

There is no answer for this question

There is no answer for this question

There is no answer for this question