Quiz 1: Nutrition, Food Choices, and Health

Nutrition

Appetite is a sensory reaction of a body. It is a natural psychological desire to eat in response to various external food choices. For example, food with appealing texture, colour, and flavour will trigger the appetite. Hence, the correct option is (b) appetite. Hunger is a biological response of a living being. When the body requires food, various biochemical mechanisms trigger the hunger that collectively results in a physical desire to eat. This response of body is not a psychological drive to eat that is affected by external food mechanisms. Hence, the option (a) hunger is incorrect. Satiety is a state of fullness after eating food. It is a feel of satisfaction that suppresses a desire to eat for some time. Satiety is an important sensation of a body to control the food intake. It is not a psychological drive of body to eat, which is affected by external food choices. Hence, the option (c) satiety is incorrect. Feeding is the process by which the body obtains food when hungry. It is required for the nourishment. The process of feeding is not a psychological drive to eat that is affected by external food choices. Hence, the option (d) feeding is incorrect.

Hunger is a physiological drive to look out and eat food. It is believed to be triggered by the hypothalamus due to the lack of macronutrients through food. Once food gets consumed it is processed by the digestive tract. Through the flow of macronutrients in the blood, the stomach and intestine send signals to the liver and the brain. Consequently, the satiety center in the hypothalamus gets stimulated, reducing the urge to lookout for food, which tends to stop the activity of eating. The factors that influence our food choices are as enlisted as below: 1. Emotional state Depressed mental states tend to push the body towards seeking food desperately and consume whatever is readily available without paying heed to the quality. 2. Childhood upbringing and experiences Conflicts within family structure can cause person to resort to disordered eating. For example, in the case of anorexia nervosa, an authoritative mother and an emotionally absent father can risk the child towards anorexia nervosa.3. Exposure to media and peers Media plays a significant role in this electronic age of computers and mobiles to influence the choices of one's foods by motivating them with attractive adds and offers for cheap snack foods that are low in quality nutrients. Socializing with peers for collaborative work or entertainment also influences our food choices. 4. Ethnic and religious inclination Some religions only permit the consumption of vegetarian foods. This may cause food deficiencies unless efforts are made to proactively seek the deficient ingredient through nutrient dense vegetarian sources. 5. Nutritional beliefs Nutritional beliefs such as the beliefs like feeling energetic on eating and improving appearance on regularly eating healthy food, can strengthen the choice of healthy foods. 6. Genetics Genetics can play a vital role in predisposing an individual to disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.7. Education, occupation and income Education can inform the individual about healthy food choices and the need to eat healthily at regular intervals. However, at the same time, occupation and more income can lead to vices and unhealthy habits such as alcoholism. 8. Locality, rural or urbanized The urban locale is more exposed to fast foods whereas in the rural regions, people tend to focus on basic food most of which provides all the basic nutrients to the body. 9. Food appeal in terms of appearance, flavor and texture The way the food appears, and smells arouses sensation in the brain. Various juices and pathways are stimulated just by the sight of food.10. Convenience and portion In the current busy schedule of work and studies, people are more inclined to prefer foods that are readily available and easily prepared. In their haste of things, they may not track the portions of food being ingested.

Food consumed by humans comprises of macronutrients and micronutrients. The micronutrients are required in very small amounts and do not provide any energy. Though consumed in small amounts, they play a major role in various processes critical for the proper functioning of the body. Micronutrients can be divided into four types, namely, water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, trace minerals, and microminerals. Vitamins B and C are water-soluble vitamins, while vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamins are important because they protect vision, strengthen the immune system, prevent cell damage from metabolic stress, help in the creation of red blood cells, support blood clotting, and provide antioxidants to fight inflammation. Minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium are referred to as microminerals, whereas those such as iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and selenium are referred to as trace minerals. Minerals help in maintaining muscle and bone strength, controlling blood pressure, supporting nervous system function, and healing wounds. Thus, energy-yielding nutrients do not include any one amongst the vitamins, minerals, water, trace minerals, fat-soluble vitamins, iron, vitamin C or phosphorus. Hence, options 'a', 'c', and 'd' are incorrect options. Macronutrients in food include carbohydrates, fats, and minerals. Metabolism of these macronutrients provides energy that is used for basal metabolism, physical activity, thermic effect and thermogenesis. Each gram of carbohydrate and protein provides around 4 kcal of energy, whereas each gram of fat provides 9 kcal of energy. Thus, macronutrients provide the bulk of energy required by the human body. Energy-yielding nutrients include carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Therefore, the correct option is option img .