Quiz 15: Population and Urbanization


Immigration is the process of people's change of residence from one region to another, for economic or political reasons, to escape war and natural disasters, for a family reunion, or to live in better climatic conditions. When people migrate, there are many effects both positive and negative on the host country due to characteristics of the immigrants. Some of the major influences the immigrants bring to a host country are given below. • First there is greater strain on the infrastructure and services such as power, water, housing, etc. within the host country. It is a great challenge to the host country to absorb the immigrants and provide necessary amenities and service. • Immigration causes increase in the workforce of the host country, and may improve the productivity due to availability of skilled workmen, or increase unemployment due to excess supply of labor. • Immigration from diverse cultures may cause discomfort to both immigrants and the native population because of different language, rituals, life styles, habits, values, etc. that are followed. The host country must have system to change its policies dynamically as per the economic situation and the characteristics of the immigrants. The immigrants may experience culture shock (discomforting experience due to unfamiliar way of life), de-individuation (loss of self awareness and self identity while being in impersonal groups), and heightened sensitivity to new surroundings. These experiences may have profound effect on the personal identity of the immigrants.

Urban growth involves three important processes planning the growth, influence of the developed urban system, and developable non-urban system (traditional system, marginalized communities, etc.). The dynamic interactions of urban planning processes, and complexity of the urban growth, which demands an all round approach for which all the sociological theories have applications. • Functionalist approach is required to identify the geographic regions of the city • Housing different strata of population, and providing safety to women, conflict theories would be useful • For making city life better in terms of cleanliness, pollution, living standards, etc. symbolic interaction theories shall aid the analysts.

The student of sociology prefers to live in the urban environment, but wish to spend weekends in rural areas to merge with the nature and get rejuvenated naturally. By the middle of the present century, seventy percent of the US population will be living in cities. The city businesses will be generating eighty percent of the nation's GDP. Most cities will have better physical capital i.e. infrastructure such as bridges, canals, etc.; transport facilities, and telecommunications. By 2030 an average citizen in the U.S. will receive packages delivered by flying drones. Most people will have driverless cars, and a large part of people's work will be while travelling. Travelling and working will merge together. The present leisure activities may not survive and new generation leisure activities will be available, which are yet to be invented. People will be consuming highly nutritious food, in synthesized or modified forms for economic and health reasons. Cities will be surrounded by plantations and manmade forests.