Quiz 73: Pharmacotherapy of Dermatologic Disorders
Psoriasis refers to the skin disease that includes thick, red skin lesions with silvery scaling. It is an autoimmune disease in which the abnormal proliferation of epidermal cells causes chronic inflammation of skin. Thus, it is a non-infectious disease. The exact etiology of the disease is not known and in this case healthy skin cells are attacked by T cells. In this condition, the proliferation of skin cells, white blood cells, and T-cells is observed. The people affected by psoriasis may feel embarrassing due to the appearance of lesions but it is not at all contagious. The secretions of lesions contain more number of white blood cells.
Onychomycosis is a most common type of fungal infection that affects toenails or fingernails. Toenails infection is most common in the people. It is caused by Candida, dermatophytes, and nondermatophytic molds. The common symptoms of this infection include thickened and discolored nails. If the infection progresses the nails become brittle. The skin underneath and around the nail can become inflamed and painful if it is left untreated. Oral and topical antifungal medicines are used in its treatment. The topical anti-fungal drugs include ciclopirox in form of nail paint or efinaconazole. Oral medications include itraconazole, fluconazole, and terbinafine.
Acne vulgaris is the disorder of hair follicles and sebaceous glands, which generally occur on face, shoulders, chest region, and upper back. Hormonal changes during puberty are the most common cause of acne vulgaris. Other factors include, stress, hereditary factors, soaps and other external irritants. Sexual activity, diet, eating chocolates and uncleanliness are not associated with acne. Therapeutic measures: a) The treatment is aimed to prevent the new lesions and to control the current lesions. b) The topical agents such as benzoyl peroxide (anti-bacterial) are found helpful. c) Systemic antibiotics such as erythromycin and tetracycline are prescribed in severe cases. d) To prevent the occurrence of comedones, vitamin A ointment is used. Cosmetic surgeries such as peeling, deep chemical peels, excision of scars, treatment with the ultra violet (UV) radiation are also preferred depend upon the patient's interest.