Pharmacology Study Set 4
Quiz 72 :
Pharmacotherapy of Bone and Joint Disorders
Etanercept (Enbrel) is used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis to reduce the inflammation. The drug acts by interfering with the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) mediated immune response. Etanercept is a fusion protein, which is produced by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technique. Etanercept is administered through the subcutaneous route, twice a week.
Calcium is an essential ion needed for the process of muscle contraction and the release of neurotransmitters from the nerve terminals. It is also important in generation of impulse in the cardiac pacemaker cells. The movement of calcium ions is disrupted through calcium channels by certain medications, which are called calcium channel blockers. Thus, the following are the implications of calcium channel blockers. • Hypertension (causes decreased blood pressure by vascular smooth muscle relaxation) • Supraventricular tachycardia (decreases cardiac conductance) • Angina pectoris (causes vasodilatation and decreases cardiac contractility) • Relaxation of cardiac muscles • During the treatment of absence seizers (T-type calcium channel blockers are used)
The decrease in height is common with an increase in age, which may not be prominent in all the cases. Also a marked decrease in health is possible with certain diseases such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and fractures. Osteoarthritis is a bone degenerative disorder of the cartilage during which the synovial fluid decreases and cartilage degenerates. In addition, the vertebral discs shrink, which contributes to the reduced height of a person. In osteoporosis, the bone strength decreases and the curvature of long weight bearing bones increases. The vertebrae shrink and the risk of fractures also increases, which intern causes decreased height.