Pharmacology Study Set 4
Quiz 71 :
Drugs for Disorders and Conditions of the Male Reproductive System
Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) is an abnormal enlargement of prostate gland. Prostate gland is a bilobed structure, which surrounds the urethra close to its origin from the bladder. The diameter of the gland is just 3 cms. This gland is actually a combination of 30 to 50 compound tubuloacinar glands. The gland empties its contents into the urethra through pores in the wall of the urethra. The function of this gland is to pour an alkaline secretion into the semen as it passes through the urethra. BPH is commonly seen in case of older adults after 60 years of age. The exact cause of BPH is not known, but is associated with the family history, heavy alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes and eating fatty diet. Finasteride (proscar) acts by inhibiting the metabolism and testosterone production thus results in shrinkage of the prostate glands. This drug inhibits the "5-alpha reductase" that coverts testosterone into 5-alpha dihydrotestosterone, which is needed for the prostate cell proliferation. Finasteride also decreases the mechanical obstruction of the urethra, which is common symptom of BPH. Thus, finasteride is used in the treatment of BPH.
Different patterns of usage are followed by the users of steroid drugs, which are commonly called anabolic steroid cycles. These patterns are used to minimize the side effects of the drug and to accelerate the chance of meeting the end result in a short time. The different patterns include cycling, stacking, and pyramiding. Stacking is taking the multiple anabolic steroids of different classes over a scheduled period of time and repeating the same again. In this process, different classes of steroids are combined believing that they can produce pronounced effect rather than taking individual drugs. In pyramiding type of steroid use, the drugs are initially started with a low dose, the dose and or the frequency of intake is gradually increased. At the mid, again the dose is gradually decreased to zero.
The inability of an individual to develop or maintain the erection of the penis during sexual activity is called erectile dysfunction. The cause of penile erection is hydraulic effect where the blood enters and is retained in sponge-like bodies with in the penis. During the process of erection, the signals are transmitted from brain to nerves in the penis, which results in sexual arousal. The following are the two major causes contributing to the erectile dysfunction (ED) in "M" in the given case study: • Using nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker) • Depression Calcium channel blockers cause decreased sympathetic activity, which interfere with the erection. During depression, ED is a common problem in men due to the decreased neuronal transmission of monoamines such as noradrenaline and serotonin. Sildenafil is sold as Viagra in the market. This drug is used to treat erectile dysfunction or impotence and pulmonary arterial hypertension.