Quiz 69: Estrogens, Progestins, and Drugs Modifying Uterine Function
Causes of infertility in females: • Obesity • Underweight • Hormonal imbalance (Example: polycystic ovarian syndrome) • Pelvic inflammatory disease • Endometriosis
Category X drugs are those that are proven to cause fetal abnormalities in animals or human during the preclinical or clinical trials. They may also have a proven positive risk of causing fetal abnormalities evidenced by the history of adverse reactions or post marketing surveillance studies. The potential risks caused by the drug in pregnant women outweigh its benefits. Example: Warfarin (anti-coagulant), methotrexate (anti-cancer), simvastatin (anti-lipidemic).
Depletion of estrogen during the early menopause and mid menopause cause headache, decreases the bone density, insomnia, loss of libido, stress and mood swings. During the postmenopausal phase, women are at an increased risk of developing osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, and dementia and colon cancer. The physiological disturbances caused due to menopause can be treated by the hormone replacement therapy (HRT). In this the women receives the physiological doses of estrogen, which may be combined with progestin sometimes. The symptoms of Eilen are due to menopause changes, thus, she is a candidate for hormone replacement therapy.