Quiz 67: Pharmacotherapy of Thyroid Disorders

Nursing

Thyroid gland is an endocrine gland. It secretes two hormones, namely triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxin (T 4 ). The increased secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary gland causes hypersecretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism), the condition is otherwise called Grave's disease. The metabolic rate increases in hyperthyroidism. The increased heart rate, rate of respiration, increased blood pressure, and increased body temperature are the signs of hyperthyroidism. Thus, Carolyn must be advised to have laboratory diagnosis tests for hyperthyroidism, which includes the serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone).

Thyroid gland is an endocrine gland which secretes the two hormones triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxin (T 4 ). Inadequate secretion of thyroid hormones or low levels of these hormones in the serum is known as Hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism causes cretinism, myxoedema, and "simple goitre." The common reasons for hypothyroidism are low iodine intake and decreased secretion of TSH. If the iodine levels are normal, then the possible reason for hypothyroidism is hyposecretion of TSH. Angina pectoris is pain in chest due to decreased oxygen supply. Decreased blood supply to some region of heart or brain causes death of cells in that region. In case of heart, we call it as myocardial infarction that gradually promotes the chances of heart diseases. Thyroid hormones regulate the normal metabolic rate. During hypothyroidism, the metabolic rate decreases in all the organs, which in turn reduce the oxygen consumption and cardiac output demand. Due to the decreased oxygen consumption, the force of contraction of heart and the cardiac output also decreases, which decreases the incidence of angina and myocardial infarction.

Thyroid gland is an endocrine gland which secretes the two hormones triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxin (T 4 ). Inadequate secretion of thyroid hormones or low levels of these hormones in the serum is known as Hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism causes cretinism, myxoedema, and "simple goitre." The common reasons for hypothyroidism are low iodine intake and decreased secretion of TSH. If the iodine levels are normal, then the possible reason for hypothyroidism is hyposecretion of TSH. The symptoms of hypothyroidism include the following: • Decreased metabolism • Weight gain • Increased sensitivity towards cold • Muscle weakness • Puffy face • Decreased heart rate • Elevated blood cholesterol levels • Fatigue

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