Quiz 64: Review of the Endocrine System


The two catecholamines secreted by the adrenal medulla are epinephrine and norepinephrine. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are stored in chromaffin granules. From chromaffin granules they are released into the blood via exocytosis on stimulation by preganglionic sympathetic fibers. Epinephrine is an endocrine hormone and neurotransmitter that is synthesized in the adrenal medulla and nerve terminals of sympathetic neurons. The following are the indications of epinephrine pharmacotherapy: • Anaphylactic shock • To induce mydriasis during intraocular surgery • To increase the duration of action of local anesthetic • Acute asthmatic attacks

Glucocorticoids are the endocrine hormones secreted by the "zona fasciculata layer" of the adrenal cortex. Cortisol, cortisone, and corticosterone are the glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids influence the metabolic functions of the body and they also have anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. Glucocorticoids supress both the innate and acquired immune responses. Due to their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects, they are used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus, inflammatory bowel diseases, psoriasis, ulcerative colitis, and eczema. Glucocorticoids are also used in the treatment of asthma during organ transplantation, graft versus host disease, and allergic diseases.

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