Pharmacology Study Set 4
Quiz 55 :
Pharmacotherapy of Hiv-Aids
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a multidrug therapy for HIV (human immune deficiency virus) infection treatment, which includes three or more than three anti-retroviral dugs that belongs to different classes. The HIV undergoes frequent mutations due to its short duration of replication time and is more prone to develop drug resistance. Thus, multidrug therapy is suggested to inhibit the replication of organism by different organisms. Means, if the organism escapes one mechanism, the other drug may inhibit its replication.
Immunosuppressants are the drugs used to reduce the immune response of the body. The following are the major indications for immunosuppressant therapy. • Allergic reactions • Autoimmune diseases • Organ transplantation (graft versus host disease) Allergic reactions are the hypersensitive reactions triggered by the body's immune system against the body's own cells or the foreign particles. The agent that triggers the allergic reaction is known as the allergen. Examples of allergens include, pollen, protein-rich foods such as sea foods, cold air, certain chemicals, etc. Immune suppressants are used to reduce the allergic responses. During the cases of complete failure or lost of an organ or tissue, organ (or tissue) transplantation is the choice of treatment. Means, the patient is transplanted with another organ donated by another person, or developed by tissue culture. When these organs are implanted to the patient, the patient's body recognises it as a foreign material and triggers the immune response. This destructive immunological response is known as "graft rejection or tissue rejection." Graft rejection involves both the cell mediated (killer T cells) and anti-body mediated (activated B cells) immune reactions. So, immunosuppressant drugs are generally given during tissue or organ transplantation. Producing antibodies to the body's own cells is known as autoimmunity. Examples of diseases caused due to autoimmunity include, myasthenia gravis and rheumatoid arthritis. Immune suppressants are used to reduce the autoimmunity.
Sepsis is a life threatening condition, characterized by the symptoms including fever, palpitations, increased rate of respiration and confusion. Sepsis is also known as "blood infection" because, the organism enters into the systemic circulation. The causative organism is most commonly a bacteria, but it may also be a fungus, virus or any other parasite. Ryan must be explained that he will be given antiretroviral therapy if he is diagnosed with the sepsis caused due to a retrovirus or diagnosed with the HIV infection (human immune deficiency virus). Otherwise, he will be given an appropriate antibiotic therapy based on the organism that infected him.