Quiz 9: Pharmacotherapy of the Pediatric Patient

Nursing

The nursing actions shows priority on asthmatic child is: The children who are suffering from the asthma experience extreme signs and symptoms. They are soon to be taken to hospital to get admitted to relieve the symptoms. The symptoms can be life threatening if the symptoms are severe. The treatment and assessment depends upon the severity of the symptoms. The nursing action includes assessment, management and disposition of paediatric patients. Assessment: the assessment for asthma patient should be accurate to give a effective treatment. Which include clinical features, mental status activity, speech, breathing patterns and chest auscultation. • Assessment should be thorough with signs and symptoms, airway obstruction, vital signs and documentation and previous treatment records. • The medical history should be obtained from the patient to improve the health status by providing appropriate care to the child. • Steam inhalations are given on regular basis to clear the mucous in the lungs. • Bronchodilators are given to clear the airways and ease the breathing pattern. • Physical examination should include respiratory system such as airway obstruction. • The severity of the asthma condition is diagnosed by the physician depending upon the assessment. • The child should be treated well with hypoxemia. • Prescribed corticosteroids, anticholinergics, IV aminophylline and IV salbutamol infusion should be administered to reduce the elevated symptoms of asthma. Disposition: the patient should be admitted when there is ongoing necessity for supplemental oxygen, when there is persistent increase in breathing and when patient experience side effects of steroids. The children are give the treatment on regular basis to avoid the harm to the patient. Discharge follow-up The physician orders for the inhaled corticosteroids on regular basis which helps in preventing or reduce the severity of the exacerbations and chronic morbidity. The corticosteroids are given in appropriate amounts to prevent excessive dosage of medicine.

The effect of food inside the stomach when the drug is absorbed is: the effect of food and absorption of drug in the stomach of neonates who are given frequent feedings. The drugs act on the target cells on the body to cure illness to form therapeutic effects, the action of body does to the medication which is administered is known as pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of drug to the body is defined as the pharmacodynamics. The nurse must have knowledge about the drug effects on the patient body especially in paediatric patients to administer medication safely. Absorption of the drug into the body: There are two factors which are considered to be in absorption of drugs into the body such as increased gastric pH and delayed gastric emptying. • Low gastric acid formation helps in absorption of acid based drugs like ampicillin and penicillin. The slow absorption of weak acids is Phenobarbital which is mostly seen in neonates and also infants. • The slow gastric motility makes the drug to stay in the stomach for longer period of time which will help in increase in absorption • The bile salt secretion is diminished in the premature infants; this will delay the absorption of vitamins which are soluble in lipids. The neonates or the infants with weak muscles cannot absorb the drugs easily and takes very slow absorption when injections are administered intramuscular. The skin of infants is thin on applying the topical medicines are absorbed into the body.

The primary factors contributing to the risk of deficient fluid balance are: The main factors which are contributing the fluid imbalance are: • The baby had three vomiting • The baby had green loose stools , fowl smelling • Voided urine only once. Intake of amoxicillin The babies have very low immunity and still their organs are in developing stage, the high dosage of medicines may not be metabolised easily in the body. Babies are given antibiotics which are administered for killing bacteria causing ear infection. The action of antibiotics such as amoxicillin kills the friendly bacteria which are present as normal flora in the digestive system, this process leads to loose stools and stomach upset which is dangerous sometimes the diarrhoea can be treated with acidophilus administration along with antibiotic can prevent diarrhoea. The antibiotic dose should be reduced. The parents should ask for the medicines which will be easy to digest and reduce the adverse effects on the digestive system. When the diarrhoea is severe the antibiotics should be stopped and start different medication to ease the worst situation to heal the digestive disorders.

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