Quiz 44: Antiseptics and Disinfectants
The term 'antiseptic' is used to refer to those substances that have been used to inhibit or stop the growth of microorganisms. The term 'disinfectant' has been used to refer to those substances that kill those microorganisms that are responsible for causing disease. According to the above definition both antiseptic and disinfectant are similar in their clinical use. The difference is that antiseptics are used only on living tissues while disinfectant are used on non-living surfaces. This means both are used to control and prevent infection. Both when come in contact with the micro-organisms destroy them. The antiseptics as well as disinfectants are not to be swallowed i.e. not for internal use but only for external use.
Antiseptics are the chemicals that kill the microorganisms (microbicidal) and/or inhibits the growth of the microorganisms (microbiostatic). These are effective against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Hence the option (a) is not the correct answer. Antiseptics are antimicrobial even in low concentrations. It is also evident that active vehicle also increases the microbial activity of the agent which is dissolved in the vehicle. Here vehicle also acts as an antimicrobial. It also depends on the surface contact time by the antiseptic. Hence the option (b) is not the correct answer. Antiseptics have broad-spectrum activity and effective against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Hence the option (d) is not the correct answer. Pathogens are the disease-causing microorganisms, particularly they are bacteria, virus, fungi, and protozoa. Antiseptics are active against all the pathogens, but only for external application (surfaces) not for internal application. Thus, the option (e) is also incorrect. Antiseptics are both bacteriostatic and bactericidal when applied on the skin/mucous surface by different action mechanisms on the surface of the bacterial cell wall. Hence, the correct answer is option
1. The hypersensitivity reaction includes responses like rashes, edema, or anaphylaxis that develops after drug is administered. Hence the correct option is . 2. The compounds that contain iodine are known as iodophor. Hence the correct option is . 3. The permanent darkening of skin and mucous membranes that occurs as a result of using silver nitrate solutions for longer duration is known as argyria. Hence the correct option is . 4. A process that kills all micro-organisms is known as sterilization. Hence the correct option is . 5. The process of destroying proteins present in bacteria is known as denaturation. Hence the correct option is . 6. The scrab developed after the skin gets burned is known as eschar. Hence the correct option is .