Quiz 42: Antifungal and Antiviral Aids Drugs

Nursing

The micro-organisms producing annoying symptoms in humans are known as fungi that also includes yeasts and molds. The three principal types of fungal infections are: systemic infection, dermatophyte and opportunistic infection. The opportunistic infection is caused by the fungus Candida albicans that is present in the mouth, vagina and GI tract. The multiple organs get affected in systemic or invasive infection therefore it is considered as a serious clinical problem. The example of invasive infections include: septicaemia, endocarditis, pulmonary and urinary tract infection. The sites that are involved in fungal infection are: blood, bones, lungs, hair, nails, skin and mucous membranes.

The azoles are anti-fungal drugs used for the treatment of systemic fungal infection. Miconazole was the first azole drug to be approved and second was ketoconazole. The spectrum of activity of azoles is wide against common fungal pathogens. The ketoconazole is administered through oral route. The clinical research data reports that the anticoagulant action of warfarin is prolonged by the administration of drugs included in the azoles classification of anti-fungal drugs. Therefore administration of ketoconazole along with warfarin requires frequent monitoring of International Normalized Ratio (INR) and Prothrombin time (PT). It should be done even when the antifungal therapy is no longer recommended for re-establishment of appropriate anticoagulant levels.

Griseofulvin is a fungistatic drug used to inhibit the growth of fungus. It is effective for many diseases' onychomycosis, ringworm, athlete's foot,etc. This drug inhibits the growth of fungus, hence, called fungistatic. It does not kill the fungus and so cannot be called fungicidal. Thus, the option (B) is not the correct answer. Ergosterol is a kind of sterol found in the cell membrane of fungus. Amphotericin and nystatin binds to ergosterol so that it gets attached to the fungus for action. Griseofulvin does not binds to ergosterol. Hence, the option (C) is an incorrect answer. Griseofulvin prevents the further growth of fungus by inhibiting cell mitosis. The fungus is not able to act on this protein and gradually loses its nutrients and diminishes. Hence, the option (D ) is also not the correct answer. Flucytosine, is an antifungal drug that alters RNA synthesis. Griseofulvin can only bind to the keratin, does not penetrate the fungal cell. Hence, option (E) is not the correct answer. Griseofulvin binds with the keratin and makes them resistant to fugus. As it binds to keratin, the skin is replaced by the complex formed of griseofulvin and keratin. This layer remains there till new cells are formed. Hence, prevents further action of fungus on the dermal layer. Therefore, option (A) is the correct answer.

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