Quiz 39: Posterior Pituitary Hormones and Drugs Affecting Uterine Muscle


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) can be described as a medical syndrome that has affected more than 23.6 million people in the United States. In this condition either there is decreased secretion of insulin or the human body becomes resistant to insulin or the combination of both. As a result of the either condition it becomes difficult to get the glucose out of the cells and the blood. This leads to an increase in the level of glucose of the blood. The level of zinc in the serum might decrease due to increase in the frequency of urination. The imbalance between the radical formation formed in nature and their subsequent control by natural antioxidants might result as a complication of diabetes. There is also an imbalance in the carbohydrate metabolism due to the insulin deficiency.

a. The vial of insulin if left out from the refrigerator wouldn't become waste. Instead the effectiveness would be reduced i.e. sugar level wouldn't be controlled when administered to a diabetic patient. b. The discarding of a vial of NPH insulin that appeared cloudy is a wrong practice. There are certain types of insulin like lente, NPH, and ultralente that look cloudy in the vial. The cloudiness is because insulin particles are not completely dissolved. The particles of insulin are settled out if the bottle or pen of insulin sits still for a few minutes. These particles then fall to the bottom of the container. The practice that can be adapted is rolling of insulin between the hands in a vial taking care that bubbles don't appear in the vial.

The Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is of two major types: type I and type 2 DM. The type I was also known as insulin-dependent diabetes and type 2 was previously called as non-insulin-dependent diabetes. The type 2 DM is more common i.e. 90 per cent of the people diagnosed with DM suffer from type 2. The blood glucose, cholesterol, glucagon and haemoglobin A1C level all are increased in both type of diabetes so these can't be used as a parameter to differentiate them. Ketoacidosis is the life-threatening condition in which there occurs deficiency of insulin that ultimately might lead to severe hyperglycaemic condition. Hence the incorrect options are a, b, d and e. Among all the parameters the type 1 and type 2 DM can be differentiated by the presence of ketoacidosis. This is because the type I diabetic patients are more likely to suffer from this condition while type 2 patients are resistant. Hence the correct option is img .

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