Quiz 35: Introduction to the Endocrine System Adrenal Steroids

Nursing

There are two systems of body that have regulatory function namely the nervous system and the endocrine system. Nervous system conducts the nerve impulses to regulate the various functions. Endocrine system is a ductless glands system present throughout the body. They conduct the regulatory function by releasing hormone in the blood stream. Hormones have slower onset and longer stimulation to exert their effects on target organ. There are eight endocrine glands pineal, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, ovary and testis. All these glands secret specific hormone to regulate growth, metabolism or reproduction. There are two types of hormones water-soluble and lipid-soluble hormones. Lipid soluble hormones can diffuse through cell membrane and then binds with the receptors present on the other cell of target organ. They stimulate gene expression for protein synthesis of interest. Water-soluble hormones cannot get diffuse through the membrane and thus exert their effect by activation of secondary messenger. The secondary messenger then carry out the necessary stimulation of the cell in the target organ. Hormone has two therapeutic effects of hormone. Hormone are important in hormonal deficiency to provide replacement therapy. Hormone also acts pharmacologically for their beneficial effects in certain diseases. The deficiency of hormones can lead to various disorders. Hormone can be steroid, amine, polypeptide or glycoprotein by chemical nature. They act as a chemical messengers secreted in blood which then travels to the specific target organ.

There are two systems of body that have regulatory function namely the nervous system and the endocrine system. Nervous system conducts the nerve impulses to regulate the various functions. Endocrine system is a ductless glands system present throughout the body. They conduct the regulatory function by releasing hormone in the blood stream. Hormones have slower onset and longer stimulation to exert their effects on target organ. There are eight endocrine glands pineal, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, ovary and testis. All these glands secret specific hormone to regulate growth, metabolism or reproduction. Pituitary gland is the master gland of endocrine system. It consists of two lobes anterior and posterior that controls the other glands. Master gland is controlled by the hypothalamus. The anterior pituitary and hypothalamus are connected by portal system. Hypothalamus produces releasing and inhibiting hormones which then travel from this portal system to the anterior pituitary gland. The releasing hormones from hypothalamus stimulate the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary. The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland produces the tropic hormones. These are released in the general circulation to control the activities of other endocrine glands. Anterior pituitary gland function can be determined by the evaluation of serum concentration of GH and TSH. TSH and GH are secreted daily for the requirement of tissues in the active state. Adequate amount of hormone is present in the blood. When evaluation of pituitary gland and target gland such as thyroid gland is done, the blood sample is drawn between 6-8 am. The normal range of TSH is 0-15 ulU/ml. As this value includes 0 or undetectable level, the deficiency related to anterior pituitary needs the patient's clinical profile evaluation. An injection of TRH is given intravenously before the blood sampling to stimulate the secretion of TSH. This type of test is known as TRH challenge test. The sudden rise of TSH if occurred can be observed in the blood test which confirms the normal functioning. If there is no sudden rise in the TSH level then pituitary dysfunction is confirmed.

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