Quiz 28: Hypolipidemic Drugs
The body synthesizes tissues along with the main function of building and repairing the organs to maintain the activity and growth. For this the body needs vitamins, minerals, energy-producing substances and water. Vitamins, minerals and water are necessary for maintaining the normal function of the body. Body water is essential to keep the body well hydrated. The body can tolerate the vitamin or mineral deficiency but cannot tolerate the water deficiency. Water is most abundant in the body and constitute for about 60% to 70% of body weight. The body water is distributed in two different compartments one is intracellular and other is extracellular. The fluid balance in these compartments is maintained always as water loss may result into dehydration while fluid retention will lead to edema. Intracellular fluid (ICF) is present inside the cell while the extracellular fluid (ECF) is present outside the cell. An extracellular fluid is plasma, interstitial fluid and transcellular fluid. Transcellular fluid includes cerebrospinal fluid, ocular, pleural, peritoneal and synovial fluids. Interstitial fluid is an aqueous medium surrounding the cells including lymph. Intracellular fluid is present inside the cell or cytoplasmic matrix. Cytosol consists of various proteins, carbohydrates and organelles dissolved in fluid.
Vitamins are required to perform day-to-day activity of life. As vitamins are essential, their deficiency results into certain disorders. Vitamins are organic compounds which are necessary to sustain life. Adequate amount of vitamins minerals can be provided through healthy diet. Vitamins are absorbed as pro-vitamin and then converted in the intestine or kidney to the specific active compound to produce a desired action. There are 13 known vitamins out of which vitamins A, D, E and K are fat-soluble while vitamin B and C are water soluble. Vitamin A is the fat-soluble and stored in fatty tissue as well as in liver. The fat-soluble vitamin remains for longer time in the body. These vitamins are absorbed as pro-vitamin and then in an intestine and kidney get converted to the active form. Daily RDA of vitamin A is 900 mcg in men and 700 mcg in women. Retinoic acid or isotretinoin or Accutane is available in oral formulation. It is believed that the excess amount of vitamin A during pregnancy will have adverse effects on fetus and may cause abortion. Accutane is used to treat moderate to severe acne and also use to prevent skin cancer. Accutane is a teratogenic drug which can disturbed the fetus development. It causes congenital malformation i.e. birth defect during pregnancy. It belongs to category X in drug which means it should not be used during pregnancy or a women who want to become pregnant. It should be avoided during a period of breast-feeding. Women should perform a pregnancy test before and while taking the drug to avoid its side effects during the pregnancy.
The folic acid deficiency can cause persistent fatigue, weakness, lethargy, pale skin, shortness of breath and irritability. The deficiency of vitamin C produces symptoms like bruising, loose teeth and wounds that are unable to heal. Isotretinoin is a vitamin A derivative drug used for treating severe acne and other skin problems. The vitamin B includes thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12. Hence the incorrect options are a, c, d and e. The deficiency of vitamin B12 can cause cracks in the corner of the mouth. The deficiency of vitamin B3 can cause soreness in the tongue and diarrhea. This condition is commonly known as pellagra. Hence the correct option is .
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