Quiz 21: Cardiac Glycosides and the Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure


There are four chambers in the heart muscular chambers, two atria and two ventricles. These muscles force the blood to pump through the circulatory system. The contraction of the cardiac muscle known as myocardium generates the blood pressure in the arteries that is necessary to distribute blood throughout the body. The blood flow to the heart is also supplied by the coronary arteries that are parted from aorta after leaving the heart immediately. Conduction is system of specialized cells inside the walls of heart. This conduction system coordinates the contraction of muscles inside the heart. The contraction inside the chambers increases the blood pressure within the ventricles and pushes the blood through the body. all the venous blood is received by superior and inferior venae cavae and drain the blood in the right atrium. The blood then passes through tricuspid valve into the right ventricle which is then pumped through the pulmonary arteries of lungs where oxygen is mixed with blood. The oxygenated blood then passes through veins back to left atrium. Then the blood passes through the bicuspid valve to enter left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps the blood in aorta pushing the blood out of heart. From aorta the blood is distributed to the whole body. The left ventricle pushes the blood into circulation in the body.

According to the data given the patient was brought to an emergency department in a collapsed state. She suffered from shortness of breath, low blood pressure and was making gurgling sound with each breathe. The term 'shortness of breath on exertion' is used for describing difficulty in breathing especially when walking up a flight of stairs. Due to low blood pressure the person might have collapsed. The gurgling sound indicates the presence of blockage in the lungs due to which the patient is unable to breathe properly. This sound can be caused by blockages to the main airways by mucous, lesions or foreign bodies. It can be predicted that the patient had suffered from congestive heart failure along with pneumonia or bronchitis.

The deoxygenated i.e. impure blood is passed by both the vena cava to the right atrium. The blood then from right atrium enters the right ventricles. The deoxygenated blood is carried by the pulmonary arteries from right ventricle to the lungs for oxygenation. This means lungs act as a purifier of the blood as impure becomes pure. The blood rich in oxygen i.e. pure blood is passed to the left atrium by the two pulmonary veins passing from each lung. Hence the incorrect options are a, b, d and e. The blood then passes to the left ventricle from the left atrium. The blood is pumped into the aorta through the left ventricle. The aorta gets further divided and delivers the blood to the major regions and organs of the body Hence the correct option is img .

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