Quiz 18: General Anesthetics
General anesthesia is widely used in surgical procedures to induce sleep and unconsciousness. It is induced through drugs which depress the central nervous system of the individual. General anesthesia and sleep both are the states of unconsciousness but the general anesthesia produces deeper state of unconsciousness than sleep. An individual in sleep can be aroused by yelling or shaking that is, one can respond to stimulation in sleep. While in general anesthesia, one cannot respond to stimulation. It suppresses central nervous system of the individual so all sensations are suspended. General anesthesia is helpful to prevent the feeling of pain during the surgery.
The anesthetics used are of different types for pre-operative surgical procedure. The examples of commonly used inhaled anesthetics in the United States are: nitrous oxide, des-flurane, sevo-flurane and iso-flurane. The propofol is a drug of choice for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia. This is because the drug is a complete anesthetic having a quick onset of action and recovery period. The complications like nausea and vomiting are not known to occur with this drug. The drug lidocaine is also known as lignocaine and is used to produce numbness in tissues in a specific area. The drug methohexital and propofol is known to produce a decrease in blood pressure. This is because of peripheral vasodilation and decreased contraction of myocardial muscles. Hence the incorrect options are a, b, d and e. The drug ketamine is known to exert potent analgesic effects along with anesthetic effects. It increases heart rate, blood pressure as well as cardiac output by stimulating the sympathetic nervous system. Hence the correct option is .
Brain is the complex structure which controls the overall functioning of the body. Every part of the brain has specific role in control and coordination of the body activities. The brain center that influences mood, motivation and perception of pain is limbic system. Anesthetic drugs primarily act on these control centers of the brain to depress the brain and make the person unconscious during the surgery.