Quiz 16: Antiepileptic Drugs

Nursing

Epilepsy is the medical condition of CNS disorder in which neurons respond in a disturbing manner leading to recurring and spontaneous seizures of any type. In epilepsy, the brain cells called neurons remain in extremely excitable state which leads to discharge of neurons in an uncontrollable manner. It results in a wave or repetitive firing of high-frequency action potentials. Due to the continuous action potential from the neurons, the individual suffers from recurring seizures.

Epilepsy is the medical condition of CNS disorder in which neurons respond in a disturbing manner leading to recurring and spontaneous seizures of any type. a. The patient is suffering from absence seizures. It is a type of generalized seizure. These seizures involve brief period of unconsciousness along with rapid eye blinking or staring into space. It lasts from a few second to less than a minute. In this seizure, the patient looses the consciousness but does not fall. b. The preferred drug for absence seizures is Zarontin. It is the trade name of Ethosuximide. This drug is of class succinimides and decreases the T-type calcium currents in the thalamus which are considered as the root cause of absence seizures. c. Trimethadione is a drug of class oxazolidiendiones and used to treat absence seizures. Its adverse effects include hypersensitivity of skin (skin rashes), snow blindness, and blood disorders. Its toxicity can even cause liver and kidney damage. d. Patient D is suffering from status epilepticus as the tonic-clonic convulsions are in progress. Patient should immediately be given lorazepam to prevent severe CNS, cardiovascular and respiratory depression. Other drug of use is Diazepam.

Seizure occurs suddenly in the brain that is generally due to the uncontrolled electrical disturbance. It affects the conscious level of a person. Absence seizure refers to the seizure in which the brief and sudden lapses in attention of a person is noticed. Hence, (a) is an incorrect answer. Clonic seizure refers to the seizure in which the person loses consciousness and the muscle contractions get altered. Hence, (b) is an incorrect answer. Simple partial seizure is known to occur in the person when a small area of the brain gets affected due to the electrical disturbance. Hence, (d) is an incorrect answer. Complex partial seizure occurs in the one lobe of brain instead of affecting the whole brain. Hence, (e) is an incorrect answer. Tonic seizure is the type of seizure that is often characterized by the sustained full-body muscle spasms. The various other health conditions associated with this seizure involves low blood sugar levels, high fever, stroke etc. Hence, img is correct.

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