Quiz 14: Antidepressants, Psychomotor Stimulants, and Lithium

Nursing

Depression is a mental illness that can be affected to anyone during various situations. At the time of depression, the behavior and mood of a person will vary. They will lose their hope of life and become frustrated. The main symptoms of depression is sleeplessness and less appetite. In case of severe depression, a person may tends to commit suicide. Normal depression may occur as a result of external factors such as death or employment. Such kind of depression can be called as reactive depression or otherwise exogenous depression. Caring and love from friends and family is needed to cure such kind of depression. Another kind of depression is Major Depressive Disorder. It is much more dangerous than the former one. Drug treatment as well as psychotherapy are needed for curing Major Depressive Disorder. The main reason for mental depression is due to the alteration in the levels of serotonin and norepinephrine in brain. If the level of both the neurotransmitters decreases, mental depression will occur. Hence, for the treatment and curing of mental depression, a concept which considers serotonin and norepinephrine will be used. This concept can be termed as Monoamine Theory of Mental Depression.

Depression is a mental illness that can be affected to anyone during various situations. At the time of depression, the behavior and mood of a person will vary. They will lose their hope of life and become frustrated. Hyper excitability periods occurring during depression is known as mania or bipolar mood disorder. Reducing the level of norepinephrine is the main procedure in the treatment of mania. Elavil is a tricyclic antidepressant drug used for the treatment of depression. TCA have certain adverse effects such as drowsiness, constipation, dry mouth et cetera due to its antihistaminic and anticholinergic effects. MAO inhibitors is also used for curing depression. Patient A is advised to use MAO inhibitor. During the period of intake of this drug, tyramine-content foods such as cheese, beer et cetera and over-the-counter drugs should be avoided. These drugs also have certain side effects such as blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation et cetera. Excessive impact of these side effects should be immediately reported to the physician. Lithium is an element that have the ability to reduce this hyper excitability. It has similar properties of sodium. Both Lithium and Sodium can be seen in the body fluid in the form of ions. Sodium deals with nerve impulse conduction and lithium deals with interference with this conduction. This reduces the hyper excitability of nerves by decreasing the norepinephrine level. In the given case, Patient B was advised to intake lithium for the treatment of mania. Here, she is feeling dizziness and ringing in ears. This will be affected due to the over dosage of lithium. In order to get rid of excess lithium, drug blood levels at regular intervals are needed.

SSRI stands for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor. It serves as a therapy for the treatment of major depressions. In specific, it has only one main pharmacological effect among the options provided. Observe each option to find it out in the following steps: High levels of norepinephrine are produced in the body in stressful situations as a part of flight response. But it is not the medicinal effect of SSRI. Hence, the option (A) is not the correct answer. Low levels of norepinephrine pave way for lack of concentration and possibly it may cause depression. Hence, the option (C) is not the correct answer. Decreased levels of serotonin cause depression. But SSRI is a therapy for depression. Hence, the option (D) is not the correct answer. Decreased levels of dopamine cause depression. So it is not the medicinal effect of SSRI. Hence, the option (E) is not the correct answer. Increased levels of serotonin give an antidepressant effect. Thus, it is the main pharmacological effect of SSRI. Therefore, the correct answer is option img .

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