Quiz 11: Introduction to the Central Nervous System

Nursing

Central Nervous System (CNS) is formed of brain and spinal cord. The main function of CNS is to regulate overall body activities by connecting different portion of brain through nerves. Neurotransmitters released by the neurons present in the nerves helps in the transmission of impulses along the synapses. Brain is one of the main organ of the body. It constitutes the Central Nervous system. Parts of the brain are cortex, hypothalamus, thalamus, medulla oblongata, skull, pineal gland, pituitary gland and cerebellum. It is a complex organ of which studies and researches are still going on regarding its functions. Human brains depicts clearly the functioning of vertebrate brains. Spinal cord is an extension from medulla oblongata to lumbar region and made up of nervous tissue. Spinal cord is a part of Central Nervous system and it is a set of nerve axons which travels from the peripheral parts of body to train. These axons hold sensory information such as hot sensation, cold sensation, touch, pain sensation, direct organ activity etc.

The central nervous system regulates the entire functioning of the body. There are several nerve paths in the central nervous system which act as a network between the parts of the brain. These paths contain neurons and they produce various neurotransmitters. In the question, Patient (A) and Patient (C) are facing the same situation who exhibits variations in the heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. This was due to the over intake of barbiturates and alcohol. The extra usage of barbiturates and alcohol inhibits the activity of the central nervous system by raising the action of GABA. This will lead to depression of vital centers namely cardiac, vasomotor and respiratory which are located in the medulla oblongata. Amphetamine is a stimulant of the central nervous system. Its overdose raises the level of dopamine in the basal ganglia of Patient (B). This will lead to faster breathing, speedy heartbeat, rise in blood pressure et cetera.

Brainstem is the distal portion of brain, which is made up of midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata. Each of these pats have their own unique structure and function. Brainstem helps in regulating heart rate, breathing, sleeping and eating. Hypothalamus is the region of the brain, which is located below thalamus and is a part of diencephalon. Hence, option A is wrong. Cerebral cortex is the outer layer of neuronal tissue of cerebrum, which is also called mantle. It help in regulating sensory sensations and voluntary movements. Hence, option B is wrong. Cerebral white matter consist of nerve fiber and is located in deeper tissues of brain which is covered by myelin sheath so it is called white matter. Hence, option C is wrong. Basal ganglia is a group of sub cortical nuclei and is located at the base of forebrain and top portion of midbrain. Hence, option E is wrong. Medulla oblongata is also known as medulla, it is a long-stem like structure which form the part of brainstem along with pons and midbrain also it is anterior and partial posterior to cerebellum Thus, the correct option is img

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