Quiz 10: Local Anesthetics

Nursing

Anesthetics are drugs which is used to relieve pain mostly during surgery. They are of two types namely General anesthetics and Local anesthetics. Even though the objective of both are same, the mechanism of action varies. Local anesthetics are drugs which affects only a specific portion of the body. That portion will lose the ability of sensation. Thus, local anesthetic is best for releasing pain without varying the mental function of a person. They are usually used during surgical procedures. They may also be used in certain over-the-counter commodities. Local anesthetics prevent the reaction of body to pain. They do so by preventing the sensory nerves that transport pain stimulation to the central nervous system. They act on nerve membranes and block the conducting ability of nerve fiber. Thus, it inhibit sodium ions in the membranes. This will block the nerves from conduction of impulses. So that person will loss the sensation in that portion.

Local anesthetics are drugs which affects only a particular portion of the body. That portion will lose the ability of sensation. Thus local anesthetic is best for releasing pain without varying the mental function of a person. They are usually used during surgical procedures. Local anesthetics may also be used in certain over-the-counter (OTC) commodities for treatment of hemorrhoids. The reason is that such kind of topical applications will help to relieve pain from injured nerve endings. It will be absorbed into blood and transfers through the blood circulation. Finally it affects the tissues over there. Hence, systemic absorption of local anesthetic drugs mainly affect brain, heart and blood vessels. At heavy doses, local anesthetics from these OTC commodities will cross the blood-brain barrier. It leads to cortical stimulation by showing certain symptoms such as tremors, nervousness, convulsions and excitation. When the dosage increases, CNS depression will occur and lead to coma or death. It is evident that Mrs. Brown has been using an OTC ointment for pain relieving. It may contain local anesthetic. This may affect her CNS and leads to unconsciousness.

There are several types of anesthesia to control the pain of a human body. General anesthesia interacts with the central nervous system and causes the loosing of alertness. Opioid analgesics at normal doses relieve pain without disturbing the central nervous system. The cause and degree of pain help to determine the compatible pharmacological effect in our body. We aim to study the different types of local anesthesia used in a particular area. We can deal with the amide and ester local anesthetics. Amide local anesthetics metabolized in the liver and ester local anesthetics metabolized by plasma cholinesterase. Diastolic blood pressure is the pressure of arteries between the two heartbeats. Antidepressant drugs such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors cause an increase in diastolic blood pressure. Local anesthetics inhibit vascular muscle to produce vasodilation. A counterexample, cocaine produces vasoconstriction, by allowing norepinephrine activities in any preferred location, as it blocks the metabolic activity of catecholamines. Hence, option (a) is incorrect. Local anesthetics perform different therapeutic activities at the normal dose. In the case of overdose, it produces rashes and burning sometimes. Histamine from mast cells causes itching at the site of injection. This is not a significant therapeutic effect. Hence, option (b) is incorrect. Depression of motor neuron function is not a therapeutic effect of local anesthetic. As local anesthetics block sensory nerves that carry the stimulus of pain to the central nervous system. These anesthetics block the nerve fiber conduction. Hence, option (d) is incorrect. Loss of consciousness occurs due to improper activity of the central nervous system. General anesthetic drugs block the nerve fiber conduction to the central nervous system by inhibiting sensory nervous responsible to carry pain stimulus. Hence, the option (e) is incorrect. Local anesthetics are sensible to a particular area, where they block the sensory nerves carry the stimulus of touch and warmth to the central nervous system. If a person was unable to feel what he touches or what is the temperature around the environment then it is very dangerous to survive. Local ester anesthetics include cocaine, procaine, etc. are metabolized by cholinesterases. The most significant therapeutic effect of the ester local anesthetics is responsible for the loss of sensation to touch and warmth. Hence, the correct option is img .

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