Quiz 3: Geriatric Pharmacology
The life expectancy of the elderly people is increasing and it will increase in future. The consumption of drugs also is increasing in old-age population. The people over 65-years of age are called geriatrics and it is quite normal for them to manage a combination of diseases with 10 or more prescriptions. The significant role of effective drugs is to improve health and the quality of life. This is achieved by the selection of appropriate medication and patient compliance. Aging is a natural and continuous process. Elderly people are more sensitive to the drugs than young adults. This is due to the changes in the composition and physiology of the body. As the age increases, the percentage of muscle and total body water decrease. The percentage amount of adipose tissue increases with age. The fat-content is found more in adipose tissue and muscles, rather than in other body organs. Increase in age results in a decrease in protein content, especially albumin. When the amount of protein reduces, the unavailability of protein adversely affects the protein binding capacity of the various substances.
The consumption of drugs is increasing in old-age population. The people over 65-years of age are called geriatrics and it is quite normal for them to manage a combination of diseases with 10 or more prescriptions. The biological changes of aging together with polypharmacy condition can be managed by certain drug compliance methods. The significant role of the effective drugs is to improve health and the quality of life. This is achieved by the selection of appropriate medication and patient compliance. The methods of drug compliance are some easy steps to help an elderly individual to follow his/her medication appropriately on time. By following the ways of drug compliance, the patient feels comfortable to follow everyday medications avoiding a missed dose. There are chances of confusion in elderly people like the respective person, regarding the time and dose of medications. It can result in a missed dose. Memory loss and unpleasant drug side effects increase the drug noncompliance. Describing the pills with their color, size and shape will be convenient to select the drugs, rather than by reading the small print on drug labels. Using easy-to-open lids which are available on request, can help him to take the pills easily. A specific time schedule for medication with descriptions like 'before meal', 'after meal', 'before bedtime' etc. encourages the patient compliance to follow the polypharmacy prescriptions accurately.
The working of different systems of the body decreases with the increasing age. The motility of the gastrointestinal (GI) system decreases and not increases with aging. The flow of blood to the intestine gets decreased among older people. The onset of action of the drug is dependent on age. In older people, the drug exhibits late effects. The surface area of the intestine decreases and not increases. The size of most of the organs of the body decreases with age. Hence the incorrect options are A, B, D, and E. The main effect of aging on drug absorption is a decrease in the rate of absorption of the drug. This is due to a decrease in the intestinal motility rate, a decrease in the gastric acid secretion, and reduced intestinal absorptive surface area. Hence, the correct option is .