Quiz 5: Reproductive Health
The oral contraceptive pills are introduced into market in 1962. At present more than 30 formulations are available in America. The combined hormone contraceptive contains synthetic estrogen-like and progesterone-like chemical but these may vary in dosage and concentrations. The hormones are similar that vary in formulations. The currently available oral contraceptives occur in 21, 28 or 91 pill packets and are taken once in a day. The consumption of contraceptive should be on same time each day. There are several brands available with different names and formulations. These pills are used on the first or fifth day of menstrual cycle. These pills act by disrupting the normal pattern of secretion of gonadotropins, prevent the maturation of follicles and LH surge that causes ovulation. They produce thick cervical mucus that prevents the union of sperm with egg. Several combined hormone contraceptives cause slight bleeding monthly. Health care provider should give information about the symptoms and side effects of a specific type of contraceptive. Some contraceptives even may interact with other medication such as antibiotics. A new type of pill causes only 4 bleeding periods a year. They act with 100% accuracy but cause some inconvenience by producing nausea, retention of body fluid, increased skin pigmentation and breast tenderness. The women having the habit of smoking and of 35 years age may develop intravascular blood clots, liver disorders and high blood pressure by using some of these contraceptives.
Contraceptive efficacy is the evaluation of contraceptive effect and its consistency. Contraceptive failure may fail to control births and cause population increase. The failure rate of contraceptive is mostly observed among younger women than in older women. This is because the failures rates exist are two types. The lowest failure rate represents the top performance of the method and highest efficacy achieved in a clinical trial. The failure rate may be average based on the analysis of various studies. This failure rate is higher than the observed failure rates. The failure rate also depends on typical use of a contraceptive method. The main cause of failure of contraceptive in younger women is the hormone levels, basal metabolic rate, regularity of menstrual cycle and moreover younger women are sexually active than older women.
The birth control failure is evaluated by the effectiveness of contraceptive and it depends on careful and consistent use. A diaphragm may not work properly when it is not inserted accurately. Contraceptive pills may not work in some women because they forget to take them regularly. Condoms may not work efficiently because they may break or leak when they are improperly worn.