Administering Medications Study Set 3
Quiz 20 :
Drugs for the Pediatric Patient
The terms pertinent to drugs for pediatric patients and their definitions are as given below. Pediatrics It is a branch of medicine pertaining to the medical care of infants and children. Pediatricians Pediatricians are doctors who have received specialized training in the management of health of infants and children including their physical, behavior, and mental health issues.
1. "Branch of medicine pertaining to disorders of children" matches perfectly with the term "Pediatrics". This is the branch that deals with disorders and diseases related to the children ranging from the age group of 0 to 14 nearly. Pediatrics deals with three stages of an individual's life i.e. infancy, childhood and puberty. It helps in caring, diagnosing and treating with variety of health-related medical issues that are generally related to the children ranging in these three stages of life. This is generally managed by the doctor who is referred to as a Pediatrician. The pediatrician is provided with proper physical training for this. Hence, the correct option is (d) Pediatrics. 2. "Period of life-extending from infancy to puberty" matches perfectly with term "Childhood". Childhood is the time period between the birth until the child reaches and stays in his/her adolescent stage. This is usually the period of growth and learning for children. This extends the growth period, from 0 to 2 (infants), early childhood 3 to 8 years nearly and the middle age group ranges from 9 to 12 nearly whereas, the adolescent stage is between 12 to 18 or 19 years. Hence, the correct option is (a) Childhood. 3. "Physician trained in the care of infants and children" matches perfectly with the term "Pediatrician". The pediatrician is the concerned person or doctor who is provided with the proper training of managing the infants and children health. They are capable of identifying symptoms of the diseases i.e. diagnosis, treating the diseases and providing correct treatment related to it. This may include health issues like infections, minor injuries, various types of illnesses, etc. Hence, the correct option is (f) Pediatrician. 4. "Area that allows fluid to remain in the syringe after the plunger is completely pushed forward" this match perfectly with the term "Dead space". This is a kind of syringe that is designed for more appropriate administration of dosage in children. This allows the pediatrician to reduce the chances of inaccuracy for dosage which is often small volumes (nearly, less than 1 ml) to be injected intramuscular especially in the case of infants as they usually have a very low amount of tissues which might pose a problem if not maintained correctly. Hence, the correct option is (b) Dead Space. 5. "Period of accelerated growth rate and sexual development" matches correctly with the term "Puberty". Puberty is that stage in life in which a child undergoes the process of sexual maturation. This usually occurs among boys in the age ranges from 12 to 16 approximately and for girls, it ranges from 10 to 14 years usually. At the onset of this stage girls and boys often experience many physical and hormonal changes that prepare them for adult stage and reproduction. Hence, the correct option is (c) Puberty. 6. "The period extending from birth to the end of the first year" matches correctly with the term "infancy". This refers to the stage of life in which a child or infant learns the basic skills and is considered usually the stage of most rapid growth. This generally extends from the time a neonatal is born till it reaches the completion of the first year. This is the earliest part of life. Hence, the correct option is (e) Infancy.
The body of infants is still undergoing some basic changes after birth. The physiological alterations in the pediatric patient are as described below. Hematological changes The blood volume increases only after 3-6 months of birth. Even then the plasma protein concentrations are low. This prevents binding of sufficient amount of drug to the proteins. Kidney function The tubular function of the kidneys is not fully developed, and the renal blood flow and glomerular filtration are low during the first eight months of life. This causes an impediment to the excretion of drugs and administrations bear a sharp risk of toxicity or adverse effects. As the renal tissue become more structured, the renal vascular resistance recedes and renal functions ease to some extent. Liver function Since the hepatic enzyme system is not fully developed the liver is not functioning to its full capacity in the infants and children. Blood brain barrier The blood brain barrier is still developing, and drugs might require more time for onset and persistent activity. Respiratory function Infants have only 10-15% of the alveoli of adults and full-scale development of the alveoli takes more than 6 years. Till that time the alveoli too are thicker than in the adults. All this provides enough resistance to drugs administered through respiratory routes.