Quiz 17: Drugs for the Nervous and Sensory Systems

Medicine

The nervous system is classified into central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The central nervous system comprises of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system comprises of all nerves arising from the brain and the spinal cord, namely, the cranial and spinal nerves, respectively. The peripheral nervous system comprises of somatic and autonomous system. The autonomous system comprises mostly of involuntary nerves, from which the name autonomous, meaning capable of controling itself, arises.

Tremor is defined generally as trembling or shaking which is visible to human eyes either voluntarily or involuntarily. This can be medically diagnosed as a symptom or a sign of various causes which may or may not have significance but should be carefully ruled out in order to treat as a professional for a better prognosis. Medically the term tremor is an upper motor neuron disorder characterised by involuntary, rhythmic, oscillations or twitching muscular contractions and relaxation of one or more parts of the body involving mainly in extremities (hands and legs) and to lesser extent the face, head and trunk. There are various types of tremor but mainly classified as essential tremors, intention tremors, cerebellar tremors, and hysteric tremor. They can also occur at rest which should be properly examined perfectly an systematically by a neurological assessment that is done by a neurologist and physical therapist. The tremors have a poor prognosis and appropriate treatment depends on accurate diagnosis of the cause and correct dosage of the drugs need to be administered.

The autonomous nervous system innervates the cardiac muscles, smooth muscles and glands. Functionally, the autonomous nervous system is classified into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathetic nervous system is concerned with the fight-or-flight response of the body in the event of threat to the body. The parasympathetic nervous system is concerned with the opposite. It tries to maintain the body at rest thereby tending to decelerate high energy mechanisms. The rest and flight-or-flight mechanisms impact the cardiac muscles, smooth muscles and glands that the autonomous nervous system innervates. This defines the basic function of the autonomous nervous system, which is control of cardiac muscles, smooth muscles and glands.