Quiz 16: Drugs for the Musculoskeletal System

Medicine

The musculoskeletal system comprises of bones, joints and muscles. Bones are rigid, muscles are flexible, whereas joints lie in between. Disorders of musculoskeletal system majorly compromise the stability of an individual and in most cases, could lead to restricted movement. 1. Bones : Made mostly of collagen, the bones perform the following important functions: i. They provide a framework that supports the body structures including muscles. ii. They act as levers in the movement of several parts of the body. iii. They protect the soft organs in the body. For example, the skull protects the brain and the rib cage protects the lungs, the heart and other vital organs in the thoracic region. iv. The bone marrow located within the pelvis, ribs, sternum and vertebrae are the primary site of production of blood cells. v. They are the storage area for calcium and phosphate. Also, triglycerides are stored in bone cavity act as reservoirs of energy. vi. Bones secrete a hormone called osteocalcin that influences the secretion of insulin. 2. Joints : These are junctions between two or more bones. i. They enable different types of movement and impart flexibility to the body. For example, the joints of the arms, legs and those in the pelvic region enable movement of appendages and trunk. ii. Some joints impart stability to the bones. For example, the fibrous joints of the skull that are fixed and immovable, thereby rendering stability to the skull. 3. Skeletal muscles: These are type of muscles that comprise of striated muscle tissue, act under voluntary control and are attached to bones by tendons. The functions of the skeletal muscles are as below: i. Enable movement of the body and the appendages to perform various activities such as walking swimming, etc. ii. They help in maintaining the heat of the body, either voluntarily, such as when rubbing hands, or involuntarily, such as by shivering. iii. Help in maintaining the posture of the body when someone is sitting or standing. 4. Smooth muscles : These are the type of muscles that can only contract involuntarily. i. Smooth muscles in the blood vessels help in maintaining the blood pressure. ii. Muscles lining the gastrointestinal tract help in peristalsis, digestion and absorption. iii. Smooth muscles of the uterus help in uterine contractions. iv. Smooth muscles of the urinary tract help in the various acts related to urine storage and excretion. The list of the disorders of the musculoskeletal system are as described below. 1. Osteomyelitis This is an infection of the bone caused by Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, or Enterobacteriaceae bacteria that reach the bone internally through bloodstream or open wound or surgery. 2. Osteoporosis This is a disease in which the bone mass decreases, and the bone becomes prone to fractures. Commonly found in the older people, this results mainly due to reduction in the hormones such as, estrogen in females and androgen in males, because these hormones help in the production of the bones cells. 3. Bursitis It is the inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs that help in lubricating the joints. Bursitis results due to overuse such as in baseball players, who need to throw the baseball repeatedly. Such repetitive movements and postures that put persistent pressure on the bursae cause bursitis. 4. Myositis Inflammation of the muscles is referred to as myositis. It may be caused due to infection, injury, autoimmune disease such autoimmune myositis or reaction of drugs such as statin and cocaine. 5. Synovitis It is the inflammation of the joint. Though most often caused due to repeated usage of the joint, it can also result due to condition such as gout and lupus. 6. Gout When there is excess of uric acid in the blood, crystals of urate to accumulate in the joints. This results in gout and joint appears swollen and is painful. 7. Osteoarthritis Mostly common in the older people it is a degenerative disease caused due to the changes in the composition of body parts, such as the cartilage becoming stiffer due to accumulation of more collagen. 8. Rheumatoid arthritis It is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the mobile joints caused due to autoimmune conditions. 9. Bone marrow disorders Caused due to leukemia, aplastic anemia and myeloproliferative disorders, it is a disorder in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate components of the blood. 10. Leukemia A disorder involving the overproduction of white cells, it is usually predisposed due to genetic reasons but can also be caused due to chemotherapy and smoking.

The disease related to the metabolism of purine is known as gout. Hyperuricemia is considered to be the risk factor for the development of gout and the risk increases with an increase in concentration of urate crystals. The diagnostic features of gout are presence of uric acid crystals in joints, tissues or body fluids. The condition of chronic gout might be treated with uricosuric drugs. These are the drugs that promote the excretion of uric acid like sulfinpyrazone. The other category of drugs used for the treatment of chronic gout includes antihyperuricemic drugs like allopurinol. The mode of action of these drugs is to decrease the amount of uric acid produced by the body.

The musculoskeletal system comprises of bones, joints and muscles. Bones are rigid, muscles are flexible, whereas joints lie in between. Disorders of musculoskeletal system majorly compromise the stability of an individual and in most cases, could lead to restricted movement. 1. Osteomyelitis This is an infection of the bone caused by Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, or Enterobacteriaceae bacteria that reach the bone internally through bloodstream or open wound or surgery. 2. Osteoporosis This is a disease in which the bone mass decreases, and the bone becomes prone to fractures. Commonly found in the older people, this results mainly due to reduction in the hormones such as, estrogen in females and androgen in males, because these hormones help in the production of the bones cells. 3. Bursitis It is the inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs that help in lubricating the joints. Bursitis results due to overuse such as in baseball players, who need to throw the baseball repeatedly. Such repetitive movements and postures that put persistent pressure on the bursae cause bursitis. 4. Myositis Inflammation of the muscles is referred to as myositis. It may be caused due to infection, injury, autoimmune disease such autoimmune myositis or reaction of drugs such as statin and cocaine. 5. Synovitis It is the inflammation of the joint. Though most often caused due to repeated usage of the joint, it can also result due to condition such as gout and lupus. 6. Gout When there is excess of uric acid in the blood, crystals of urate to accumulate in the joints. This results in gout and joint appears swollen and is painful. 7. Osteoarthritis Mostly common in the older people it is a degenerative disease caused due to the changes in the composition of body parts, such as the cartilage becoming stiffer due to accumulation of more collagen. 8. Rheumatoid arthritis It is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the mobile joints caused due to autoimmune conditions. 9. Bone marrow disorders Caused due to leukemia, aplastic anemia and myeloproliferative disorders, it is a disorder in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate components of the blood. 10. Leukemia A disorder involving the overproduction of white cells, it is usually predisposed due to genetic reasons but can also be caused due to chemotherapy and smoking.